Advertisement

Forest biomass extraction for livestock feed and associated carbon analysis in lower Himalayas, India

  • Rajiv PandeyEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Accounting the changes in the net carbon (C) sink-source balance is an important component for greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) inventories. However, carbon emission due to the vegetation biomass extraction for household purposes is generally not accounted in forest carbon budget analysis due to miniscule volume and non-availability of data. However, if vegetation remains in the forests, then vegetation biomass decomposes after natural death and decay and fixes some carbon to soil and releases some directly to the atmosphere. The study attempts to quantify the carbon removal against the biomass extraction for livestock feed by collecting primary data on feed from 316 randomly selected households engaged in livestock rearing in the lower Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India and carbon flow components due to livestock production. The analysis results that average daily forest fodder consumption was 13 kg per Adult Cattle Unit (ACU) and total of 20.31 Million tonnes (Mt) consumption of forest biomass by total livestock of Uttarakhand. This results into absolute annual carbon removal of 3.25 Mt from Uttarakhand forests against the livestock fodder. However, overall carbon flow including the enteric fermentation and manure management system of livestock estimated as per IPCC guidelines, results into emissions of 9.42 Mt CO2 eq. Therefore, biomass extraction for household purposes should be accounted in regional carbon flow analysis and properly addressed in the GHG inventories of the forests and livestock sector. Suitable measures should be taken for emissions reduction generated due to forest based livestock production.

Keywords

Anthropogenic disturbances Carbon accounting Carbon flow Fodder Leakage Sink and source Understorey biomass 

References

  1. Bajracharya S (2008) Community carbon forestry: remote sensing of forest carbon and forest degradation in Nepal. Master’s Thesis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation, Enschede, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonan GB (2008) Forests and climate change: forcing, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320(5882):1444–1449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradford J, Weishampel P, Smith M et al (2009) Detrital carbon pools in temperate forests: magnitude and potential for landscape-scale Assessment. Can J For Res 39:802–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown S (1997) Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests: a primer. FAO Forestry Paper 134. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown S, Swingland IR, Hanbury-Tenison R et al (2002) Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol. Philos Trans Math Phys Eng Sci 360(1797):1593–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Census L (2005) 17th Indian livestock census all India summary report. Dept of Ani Hus & Dairying, Min of Agri, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  7. Champion HG, Seth SK (1968) A revised survey of the forest types of India. Manager of Government of India Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. Chhonkar PK (2003) Organic farming: science and belief. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 51(4):365–377Google Scholar
  9. Dikshit AK, Birthal PS (2010) Environmental value of draught animals: saving of fossil-fuel and prevention of greenhouse gas emission. Agric Econ Res Rev 23:227–232Google Scholar
  10. FAO (2010) Global forest resources assessment 2010. FAO Forestry Paper 163. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  11. FSI (2009) State of forest report 2009. Forest Survey of India, DehraDunGoogle Scholar
  12. Gorte RW (2009) Carbon sequestration in forests. CSR report for congress—RL31432. Congressional research service, USAGoogle Scholar
  13. Grace J (2004) Understanding and managing the global carbon cycle. J Ecol 92(2):189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Houghton RA (2005) Aboveground forest biomass and the global carbon balance. Glob Chang Biol 11(6):945–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. IPCC (1997) Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories: reference manual. IPCC Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  16. IPCC (2003) Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry. IPCCC National greenhouse gas inventories programme. Institute for Global Environment Strategies, KanagawaGoogle Scholar
  17. IPCC (2004) Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change, and forestry. IPCC, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  18. IPCC (2006) 2006 IPCC guidelines for greenhouse gas inventory, vol. 4, WMO/UNEPGoogle Scholar
  19. Kishwan J, Pandey R, Dadhwal VK (2011) Emission removal capability of India’s forest and tree cover. Small Scale For (accepted)Google Scholar
  20. Kleine M, Shahabuddin G, Kant P (2009) Case studies on measuring and assessing forest degradation: addressing forest degradation in the context of joint forest management in Udaipur, India. Forest resources assessment working paper - 157. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  21. Kumar R (2009) Ratio of dry and green biomass of some plants of Uttarakhand. Personal communication. FSI, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  22. Lambin EF (1999) Monitoring forest degradation in tropical regions by remote sensing: some methodological issues. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 8(3–4):191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Levine JS (1996) Biomass burning and global change. MIT, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. Malhi Y, Meir P, Brown S (2002) Forests, carbon and global climate. Philos Trans Math Phys Eng Sci 360(1797):1567–1591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mishra SN, Dikshit AK (2004) Environment and livestock in India. Manohar Publishers and Distributors, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  26. Pandey R (2010) Quantitative estimation of livestock feed from forest in Uttaranchal Himalayas. Unpublished report. CSO, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  27. Planning Commission (2006) Report of the working group on animal husbandry and dairying: 11th 5 year plan (2007–2012). Planning Commission, Govt. of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  28. Randerson JT, Chapin IFS, Harden JW et al (2002) Net ecosystem production: a comprehensive measure of net carbon accumulation by ecosystems. Ecol Appl 12(4):937–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Salinas N, Malhi Y, Meir P et al (2011) The sensitivity of tropical leaf litter decomposition to temperature: results from a large-scale leaf translocation experiment along an elevation gradient in Peruvian Forests. New Phytol 189(4):967–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schimel DS (1995) Terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon cycle. Glob Chang Biol 1:77–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schulze ED, Wirth C, Heimann M (2000) Climate change: managing forests after Kyoto. Science 289(5487):2058–2059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schwarze R, Niles JO, Olander J (2002) Understanding and managing leakage in forest-based greenhouse-gas-mitigation projects. Philos Trans Math Phys Eng Sci 360(1797):1685–1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sidhu AS, Narwal RP (2007) Effect of lead and varying organic materials on micro-nutrient concentration of maize (Zea mays l.). Indian J Agric Res 41(3):183–188Google Scholar
  34. Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T et al (2006) Livestock’s long shadow: Environmental issues and options. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  35. Tulachan PM, Neupane A (1999) Livestock in mixed farming systems of the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: Trends and sustainability. ICIMOD & FAO, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  36. Verolme HJH, Moussa J (1999) Addressing the underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation—Case studies: Analysis and policy recommendations. Biodiversity Action Network, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  37. Winjum JK, Brown S, Schlamadinger B (1998) Forest harvests and wood products: sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For Sci 44(2):272–284Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biodiversity and Climate Change Division, Indian Council of Forestry Research & EducationDehradunIndia

Personalised recommendations