Socio-technical governance has been of long-standing interest to science and technology studies and science policy studies. Recent calls for midstream modulation direct attention to a more complicated model of innovation, and a new place for social scientists to intervene in research, design and development. This paper develops and expands this earlier work to demonstrate how a suite of concepts from science and technology studies and innovation studies can be used as a heuristic tool to conduct real-time evaluation and reflection during the process of innovation – upstream, midstream, and downstream. The result of this new protocol is inclusivity mainstreaming: determining if and how marginalized peoples and perspectives are being maximally incorporated into the model of innovation, while highlighting common problems of inequality that need to be addressed.
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Logan Williams thanks NSF DDIG 1153308, the CAORC Multi-country Fellowship, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Michigan State University for the funding that allowed her to collect the data about Aurolab and Tilganga-FHIOL from 2011-2012 and in 2017. Both authors thank David J. Hess, and two anonymous referees for their comments on an early draft.
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Williams, L.D.A., Woodson, T.S. Enhancing Socio-technical Governance: Targeting Inequality in Innovation Through Inclusivity Mainstreaming. Minerva 57, 453–477 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11024-019-09375-4
- Inclusivity mainstreaming
- Evaluation and reflection