Skip to main content

Consensus, Civility, and Community: The Origins of Minerva and the Vision of Edward Shils

Abstract

For over 50 years, Minerva has been one of the leading independent journals in the study of ‘science, learning and policy’. Its pages have much to say about the origins and conduct of the ‘intellectual Cold War’, the defence of academic freedom, the emergence of modernization theory, and pioneering strategies in the social studies of science. This paper revisits Minerva through the life and times of its founding Editor, Edward Shils, and traces his influence on its early years – from its association with the Congress for Cultural Freedom in the 1950s, to the higher reaches of research policy in the 1990s. At the close of his life, Minerva continued to espouse Shils’ commitment to what he saw as the fundamental Enlightenment traditions of consensus, civility, and community. In the 21st century, with the achievements of science producing rapid change in every walk of life, his legacy so far retains an established place in the history of scholarship. Whether that legacy will endure – and if so, what role Minerva will play in its defence – remain key questions for the coming generation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. 1.

    University of Chicago Chronicle, 14(11), (2 February 1995), 2.

  2. 2.

    For reflections on his life and times, see Gould (1981) and Shattock (1996). For an important appreciation, Eisenstadt (1997). Shils’ articles and editorials in Minerva are recorded in Minerva, 34 (1996), 125–157. A comprehensive listing of his writings has been compiled by his former secretary, Christine C. Schnusenberg, and Gordon B. Neavill (Schnusenberg and Neavill 1997), and is available on-line at http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/slisfrp/59.

  3. 3.

    Dismissing Wirth as ‘a promise rather than a fulfilment’, see Shils (2006: 34).

  4. 4.

    Merton also credits George Sarton as nurturing his introduction to the history of science (Merton 1985).

  5. 5.

    Shils mentions several émigrés to New York from the famous Institut für Sozialforschung who also served in the OSS, and later became professors at Columbia (Shils 1970a[1980]).

  6. 6.

    I am grateful to Professor Blair Worden for access to Trevor-Roper’s correspondence with Shils. For an insight into this academic world of wartime intelligence, see Davenport-Hines (2012) and also Sisman (2010).

  7. 7.

    ‘A very good address for a young man’, he later confessed. Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas, Josselson Papers, 24.5, Shils to Josselson, 26 January 1968.

  8. 8.

    Shils describes Wilson as ‘one of the most brilliant men I have ever met’ (Shils 2006: 57). For the attempt to understand the motivations of Nazi leadership, see Pick (2009, 2012). After the war, Shils also designed and guided the interviews of defectors from the Soviet Army in Germany. See Josselson Papers, 24.4, Shils to Josselson, 7 November 1974. In 1947, Shils continued his association with Wilson as a member of the board of the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations. Later, Shils and Dicks wrote a study of The Soviet Army for the Rand Corporation (Shils and Dicks 1951).

  9. 9.

    This marked the beginning of Janowitz’s career in military sociology and led to his monumental treatment of The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait (Janowitz 1960).

  10. 10.

    For the source, see Lazarsfeld (1949).

  11. 11.

    For his intellectual development during the war, see Shils (1975b: xxii–xxiv).

  12. 12.

    U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Record Group 226, OSS files f. 63.

  13. 13.

    Halsey contributed an early article ‘Science and Government in Sweden’ to Minerva (Halsey 1963).

  14. 14.

    Personal Communication, Jennifer Platt to author, 21 October 2009. I am grateful to Professor Platt for showing me her copy of the list of Shils’ courses in the LSE Calendar for 1947. See also (Halsey 2004: 72).

  15. 15.

    The locus classicus is Shils (1955[1972]). See ‘Edward Albert Shils’ in King’s College (1995: 35).

  16. 16.

    See Istvan Hargittai, Martians of Science: Five Physicists who Changed the Twentieth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), Teller, 161; Szilard, 27–28, 42–49, 71–78, 96, 138.

  17. 17.

    Hugh Trevor-Roper, Manchester Guardian Weekly, 20 June 1950; see Lasch (1969, chapter 3).

  18. 18.

    Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Shils Papers, Box 13, Series V, ‘“I’d do it again. I assure you”: The Congress for Cultural Freedom’ (nd).

  19. 19.

    It is possible that Josselson met Shils during the war, as he was working in a similar capacity, but this remains speculation.

  20. 20.

    Der Monat, July–Aug 1950, quoted in Coleman (1989: 15) and Saunders (1999a: 101). See also Hochgeschwender (1998, 2003) and Coleman (1989: 94).

  21. 21.

    See Giles Scott-Smith, The Politics of Apolitical Culture: The Congress for Cultural Freedom, the CIA, and Post-war American Hegemony (London: Routledge, 2003).

  22. 22.

    For an appreciation of Szilard, see Shils (1997, ch. 11).

  23. 23.

    It is surprising that recent biographers of Polanyi make little if any reference to this long relationship, or to Polanyi’s indebtedness to Shils. See Scott and Moleski (2005) and Nye (2011).

  24. 24.

    Kingsley Martin later speculated that the CCF decided to close down the journal when it learned that Polanyi planned to hold a symposium on nuclear politics, which could have become a platform for ‘Bernalism’ (Coleman 1989: 98).

  25. 25.

    In 1961, Shils returned the compliment, editing for Polanyi’s 70th birthday in March 1961 a Festschrift that became The Logic of Personal Knowledge (Shils 1961a). This included an essay by Bertrand Jouvenel (1961) ‘The Republic of Science’, and marked the first appearance of Shils’ seminal paper on ‘Centre and Periphery’ (Shils 1961b[1970, 1975, 1982]).

  26. 26.

    Shils’ efforts contributed ultimately to the creation of the Social and Political Science Tripos that exists in Cambridge today. One of Cambridge’s first appointments in sociology, John Goldthorpe, was elected a Fellow of King’s.

  27. 27.

    Library of Congress, Oppenheimer Papers, Box 119, Shils to J. Robert Oppenheimer, 8, 14 March 1962; Oppenheimer to Shils, 14 March.

  28. 28.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 4, Shils-Bieber correspondence, 11–16 April, 14 May 1962.

  29. 29.

    Josselson Papers, 20.7, ‘International Relations’, The Manchester Guardian, 24 August 1962. The inaugural Board of Advisory Editors included Noel (later Lord) Annan, Sir Eric (later Lord) Ashby, Prof. S.N. Bose, FRS, Prof. C.D. Darlington FRS, Dr. K.O. Dike, Sir John Eccles, FRS, Prof. Gerald Holton, Prof. Taku Komai, Professor Thomas S. Kuhn, Prof. W. Arthur Lewis, Dr. A. Davidson Nicol, Prof. Eni Njoku, Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, Prof. H. Plessner, Prof. Michael Polanyi, FRS, Prof. Eugene Rabinowitch, Prof. Abdus Salam, FRS, Prof. Cyril Smith, Prof. Bruno Snell, Sir Charles (later Lord) Snow, Dr. J. M. Ziman, FRS, and Professor Sir Solly (later Lord) Zuckerman, FRS.

  30. 30.

    Josselson Papers, 20.7, ‘Goddess Armed’, The Spectator, 16 November 1962.

  31. 31.

    Josselson Papers, 20.7. Albu (1963) cited in Hansard, Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 15 January 1964, col. 581.

  32. 32.

    Josselson Papers, 20.7. ‘Scientists in the New Deal’ – citing Auerbach (1965) in Nature, 25 December 1965, 1260. See also ‘Academic Neddies’, New Society, 3 February 1966; ‘Twilight of University Autonomy in Argentina’, TES, 21 October 1966; and ‘Freedom of Admissions’, TES, 9 December 1966.

  33. 33.

    Josselson Papers, 20.7. Civil Service Exam, ‘Write in your own words a continuous summary’, M. Polanyi, ‘The Growth of Science in Society’ (Polanyi 1967).

  34. 34.

    Josselson Papers, 20.7.

  35. 35.

    Josselson Papers, 20.7.

  36. 36.

    Josselson Papers, 20.7., Andrzej Biernacki, in Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa, 1(2–3), (1965), 291–2.

  37. 37.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 4, Shils-Bieber correspondence, 11–16 April, 14 May 1962; Bieber to Shils, 7 July 1966. The practice of paying authors eventually declined but continued well into the 1970s. See Josselson Papers, 24.4, Shils to David Heaps, 15 March 1975; Ford Foundation Archives, David Heaps to C. Goodwin and Francis Sutton, 17 September 1976.

  38. 38.

    Marion Bieber, Memoir (London: typescript, privately circulated, 2009). I am indebted to Ms Jan Wiener for sharing this memoir with me.

  39. 39.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 4, Shils to Bieber (nd., ca. 20 June 1966).

  40. 40.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 4, Shils to Bieber, 15 June 1964.

  41. 41.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 4, Bieber to Shils, 7 July 1966.

  42. 42.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 4, Bieber to Shils, 9 November 1965.

  43. 43.

    Bieber to Shils, V, 4, 7 July 1966. Indonesia took 253 subscriptions. Shils to Bieber, 12 July 1966.

  44. 44.

    Chronicle of Higher Education, V (3), (4), (1967).

  45. 45.

    With this enquiry came suggestions that the Marshall Foundation had funds from the CIA, as had the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell.

  46. 46.

    Shils also reported an account in Pravda on 1 March, claiming that student exchanges had been exploited by the CIA since 1958, and that American academics working in India were CIA agents. Algeria, Switzerland and Tunisia suspended student and academic exchanges with the USA.

  47. 47.

    Thomas Braden, “I'm glad the CIA is ‘immoral’”, The Saturday Evening Post, 20 May 1967.

  48. 48.

    Ford Foundation Archives, Shils to Adam Watson, Director General, IACF, 19 July 1978.

  49. 49.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 4, Bieber to Shils, 11 October 1968. It is not known whether Survey or China Quarterly suffered similarly.

  50. 50.

    Josselson Papers, 24.4, Shils to Josselson, 2 August 1974.

  51. 51.

    Josselson Papers, 24.5, Shils to Josselson, 2 November 1973.

  52. 52.

    Josselson Papers, 24.4, Shils to Josselson, 8 February 1975. This friction is described in Saunders (1999b) and in Coleman (1989, ch. 15).

  53. 53.

    See the masthead on Minerva, VII, (1), (Autumn–Winter 1968).

  54. 54.

    Josselson Papers, 24.5, Shils to Josselson, 26 March 1969.

  55. 55.

    Josselson Papers, 24.5, Shils to Josselson, 31 July 1969.

  56. 56.

    Josselson Papers, 24.5, Shils to Josselson, 28 January 1975.

  57. 57.

    In the same year, as part of his expansionist program, Maddox agreed to publish Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, edited by Larry Laudan, and Science Studies (now Social Studies of Science), co-edited by David Edge and Roy MacLeod. Both journals soon moved to different publishers, and both flourish today. Roy MacLeod, ‘David Edge. In Memoriam’, Social Studies of Science, 33(2), (April 2002), 181–183.

  58. 58.

    Ford Foundation Archives, David Heaps to C. Goodwin and Francis Sutton, 17 September 1976.

  59. 59.

    He also rejected the allegation that the editors of Science Studies had somehow ‘broken away’ from Minerva; far from it, he asserted, pointing to the present author as among his ‘valued contributors’. Shils Papers, Series V, Box 8, Shils to TLS, 9 February 1971.

  60. 60.

    Josselson Papers, 24.5, Shils to Josselson, 26 September 1971.

  61. 61.

    Shils rented a Peterhouse flat for the rest of his life. He bought a flat in Chicago for his mother and his son, Adam, who received his early education in England, and who now lives in Chicago.

  62. 62.

    Personal communication, Gillian Anderson to author, 2 November 2004.

  63. 63.

    Josselson Papers, 24.4, Shils to Josselson, 8 February 1975.

  64. 64.

    Josselson Papers, 24.5, Shils to Josselson, 26 October 1971.

  65. 65.

    Josselson Papers, 24.4, Shils to Josselson, 10 February 1975.

  66. 66.

    Ford Foundation Archives, Shils to David Heaps, 11 November 1975.

  67. 67.

    For ten years, the ICFU published reports on German, Australian and Swedish universities; held conferences in Lisbon, Toronto and New York; and published a newsletter on contemporary ‘crises’ in higher education. Its funding came from the Andrew Mellon Foundation, the Exxon Education Foundation, the Thyssen Stiftung, the VW Stiftung, and the Gulbenkian Foundation.

  68. 68.

    Minerva was one of just three programmes that Ford took over from the IACF, the others being the Soviet studies journal Survey, and the Fondation pour une Entraide Intellectuelle Européenne. Ford Foundation Archives, David Heaps, 13 March 1978.

  69. 69.

    Ford Foundation Archives, David Bell to McGeorge Bundy, 18 January 1979. The referees included Professors Carl Kaysen (then at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton), Don Price (Harvard), Thomas Kuhn (then at the Institute for Advanced Study), Randall Collins (UCLA), and Robert Fox (Lancaster University, and then editor of the British Journal of the History of Science). Ford Foundation Archives, David E. Bell to McGeorge Bundy, 18 January 1979.

  70. 70.

    The grant came from the European and International Affairs Program of the Foundation’s International Division, whose budget that year exceeded $3.2 million. Ford Foundation Archives, David Heaps to Harold Howe and Francis Sutton, 13 March 1978.

  71. 71.

    Personal communication, Nicholas Farnham to author, 18 February 2005.

  72. 72.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Shils to Harold Orlans, 1 June 1976.

  73. 73.

    Andre Beteille, ‘Edward Shils: Social Theorist and Critic’, The Times of India, 21 February 1995.

  74. 74.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 4, Shils to Bieber, 2 August, 29 October 1965.

  75. 75.

    Shils Papers, Series 5, Box 4, Shils to Bieber, 10 September 1964, referring to Lipset (1964).

  76. 76.

    See Shils (1968). He included Weinberg (1963) ‘Criteria for Scientific Choice’, Carter (1963) ‘The Distribution of Scientific Effort’, Maddox (1964) ‘Choice and the Scientific Community’, Toulmin (1964) ‘The Complexity of Scientific Choice: A Stocktaking’, Weinberg (1965) ‘Scientific Choice and Biomedical Science’.

  77. 77.

    See Moravcsik (1966) and Salam (1966).

  78. 78.

    These are listed in ‘Edward Shils’ Contributions to Minerva’, Minerva, 34(1), (1996): 125–127.

  79. 79.

    See Harry G. Johnson 1977. ‘The Soil and Air of Academic Life, 1. The Shadow of Keynes’, Minerva 15(2), (1977): 201–213.

  80. 80.

    Stanley Coben, ‘Foundation Officials and Fellowships: Innovation in the Patronage of Science’, Minerva, 14(2), (1976): 225–240.

  81. 81.

    Orlans Papers, Orlans to ES, 23 February 1986.

  82. 82.

    These also included accounts of academic freedom violations in Berlin and Berne, Sweden and Britain; trades unionism in American universities; the criteria of academic assessment and appointment; the Western Culture Program at Stanford; and Affirmative Action at Yale.

  83. 83.

    See Hebe M.C. Vessuri, ‘The Universities, Scientific Research and the National Interest in Latin America’, Minerva, 24(1), (1986), 1–38; Stuart Macdonald, ‘Controlling the Flow of High-Technology Information from the United States to the Soviet Union: A Labour of Sisyphus?’, 39–73; John Hayward, ‘Responses to Contraction: The University of Hull, 1979–1984’, 74–97.

  84. 84.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 16, Christine Schnusenberg to Prof. Paul Josephson, 18 January 1995.

  85. 85.

    Personal communication, Gillian Anderson to author, 2 November 2004.

  86. 86.

    Personal communication, Gillian Anderson to author, 2 and 11 November 2004.

  87. 87.

    Shils Papers, Series V, Box 16, Michael Shattock to Shils, 12 September 1994.

  88. 88.

    See Gibbons et al. (1994); Helga Nowotny et al. (2001), and the special issue of Minerva devoted to: ‘Reflections on the New Production of Knowledge’, Minerva, 41(3), 2003: 177–276.

  89. 89.

    Towards the end of his life, Shils devoted many hours to writing a vast manuscript called ‘Movements of Knowledge’, which remains unpublished in his archives at the University of Chicago. At his death, he left a Fragment of a Sociological Autobiography, which was edited and published in 2006, but he awaits a definitive biography. Perhaps a start has been made by Thomas Schneider (2012).

References

  1. Agee, Philip, and Louis Wolf. 1978. Dirty Work: The CIA in Western Europe. New York: Dorset Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Albu, Austin. 1963. The Member of Parliament, the Executive, and Scientific Policy. Minerva 2(1): 1–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Altbach, Philip G. 1999. Edward Shils and the American University. Society (March/April 1999): 68–73.

  4. Annan, Noel. 1990. Our Age. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Aronova, Elena. 2012. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, Minerva, and the Quest for Instituting “Science Studies” in the Age of Cold War. Minerva 50(3): 307–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ashby, Lord. 1996. Centre and Periphery in Academe: Some Personal Reflections. Minerva 34(1): 95–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Auerbach, Lewis E. 1965. Scientists in the New Deal: A Pre-war Episode in the Relations between Science and Government in the United States. Minerva 3(4): 457–482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Barnes, Barry. 1982. T.S. Kuhn and Social Science. London: Macmillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  9. Bell, Daniel. 1960[1988]. The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties. Glencoe: Free Press. 2nd edition 1988 with an afterword, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  10. Ben-David, Joseph, and Terry N. Clark. 1977. Culture and its Creators: Essays in Honor of Edward Shils. Chicago: University of Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Ben-David, Joseph. 1964. Scientific Growth: A Sociological View. Minerva 2(4): 455–476.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Ben-David, Joseph. 1965. The Scientific Role: The Conditions of its Establishment in Europe. Minerva 4(1): 15–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Ben-David, Joseph. 1968. Fundamental Research and the Universities: Some Comments on International Differences for OECD. Paris: OECD.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Ben-David, Joseph. 1971. The Scientist’s Role in Society: A Comparative Study. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ben-David, Joseph. 1972. American Higher Education: Directions Old and New. New York: McGraw Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ben-David, Joseph. 1977. Centers of Learning: Britain, France, Germany and the United States. New York: McGraw Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Benney, Mark. 1966. Almost a Gentleman. London: P. Davis.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Berghahn, Volker R. 2001. America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Biernacki, Andrzej. 1965. Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa 1(2–3): 291–292.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Bissell, Richard. 1996. Reflections of a Cold Warrior: From Yalta to the Bay of Pigs. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Boyle, Peter. 2000. Review Article: The Cold War Revisited. Journal of Contemporary History 35(3): 479–489.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Bulmer, Martin. 1996. Edward Shils as a Sociologist. Minerva 34(1): 7–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Carter, Charles. 1963. The Distribution of Scientific Effort. Minerva 1(2): 172–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Clayton, Laurie. 1996. Propaganda Warriors: America’s Crusade against Nazi Germany. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Coben, Stanley. 1976. Foundation Officials and Fellowships: Innovation in the Patronage of Science. Minerva 14(2): 225–240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Colby, William. 1978. Honorable Men: My Life in the CIA. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Coleman, Peter. 1989. The Liberal Conspiracy: The Congress for Cultural Freedom and the Struggle for the Mind of Postwar Europe. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Crockatt, Richard. 1995. The Fifty Years War: The United States and the Soviet Union in World Politics, 1941–1991. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Davenport-Hines, Richard. 2012. Hugh Trevor-Roper: The Wartime Journals. London: I.B. Tauris.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Eisenstadt, Shmuel Noah. 1997. Edward Shils (1910–1995). Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 141(3): 367–393.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Elkana, Yehuda, and Hannes Klöpper. 2012. The University in the 21st Century: Teaching the New Enlightenment at the Dawn of the Digital Age. Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Epstein, Joseph. 1995[1997]. My Friend Edward. The American Scholar, LXIV(Summer 1995): 371–394. Republished 1997 in Edward Shils, Portraits: A Gallery of Intellectuals, ed. Joseph Epstein. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  33. Floud, Jean. 1996. In Memory of Edward Shils. Minerva 34(1): 85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Forman, Paul. 1974. The financial support and political alignment of physicists in Weimar Germany. Minerva 12(1): 39–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Gellner, Ernst. 1992. Post-Modernism, Reason and Religion. London: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  36. Gibbons, Michael, Camille Limoges, Helga Nowotny, Simon Schwartzmann, Peter Scott, and Martin Trow. 1994. The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Gilman, Nils. 2003. Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Gould, Julius. 1981. Edward Shils’ Achievement: The Owl of Minerva. Encounter 56(5): 69–77.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Grémion, Pierre. 1995. Intelligence de L’Anticommunisme: Le Congrès pour la liberté de la culture à Paris, 1950–1975. Paris: Fayard.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Grove, J.W. 1982. The Sociological Denigration of the Rationality of Science. Minerva 20(3/4): 550–556.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Halsey, A.H. 1963. Science and Government in Sweden. Minerva 2(1): 54–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Halsey, A.H. 1999. Edward Shils, Sociology and Universities. Minerva 37(4): 391–404.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Halsey, A.H. 2004. A History of Sociology in Britain: Science, Literature and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  44. Hargittai, Istvan. 2006. Martians of Science: Five Physicists who changed the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  45. Nowotny, Helga, Peter Scott, and Michael Gibbons. 2001. Re-Thinking Science: Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Policy. And the special issue of Minerva devoted to: ‘Reflections on the New Production of Knowledge’, Minerva 41(3), (2003), 177–276.

  46. Hersch, Burton. 1992. The Old Boys: The American Elite and the Origins of the CIA. New York: Scribner’s.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Hochgeschwender, Michael. 1998. Freiheit in der Offensive? Der Kongress für Kulturelle Freiheit und die Deutschen. Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  48. Hochgeschwender, Michael. 2003. A Battle of Ideas: The Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF) in Britain, France, Italy, and West Germany. In The Postwar Challenge: Cultural, Social, and Political Change in Western Europe, 1945–1958, ed. Dominik Geppert, 319–338. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Hogan, Michael J. 2003. Rev. of The Politics of Apolitical Culture: The Congress for Cultural Freedom, the CIA, and Post-war American Hegemony, by Giles Scott-Smith. Journal of American History 89(4): 1594–1595.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Hollinger, David. 1983. The Defense of Democracy and Robert K. Merton’s Formulation of the Scientific Ethos. Knowledge and Society 4(1983): 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Hollinger, David. 1995. Science as a Weapon in Kulturkämpfe in the United States During and After World War Two. Isis 86(3): 440–454.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Janowitz, Morris. 1960. The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait. Glencoe: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Johnson, Harry G. 1977. The Shadow of Keynes. With an Introduction written by Edward A. Shils. Reports and Documents Section. Minerva 15(2): 201–213.

  54. Jouvenel, Bertrand. 1961. The Republic of Science. In The Logic of Personal Knowledge. Essays Presented to Michael Polanyi on His Seventieth Birthday, 11th March 1961, ed. Edward Shils, 131–142. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

  55. Kempe, Frederick. 2012. Berlin 1961: Kennedy, Khrushchev and the Most Dangerous Place on Earth. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

    Google Scholar 

  56. King’s Cambridge. 1995. King’s College Annual Report. Cambridge.

  57. Kitcher, Philip. 2001. Science, Truth and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  58. Lasch, Christopher. 1969. The Agony of the American Left. New York: Knopf.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Laudan, Larry. 1984. Two Puzzles About Science—Reflections on some Crisis in the Philosophy and Sociology of Science. Minerva 20(3/4): 253–268.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Lazarsfeld, Paul F. 1949. The American Soldier: An Expository Review. Public Opinion Quarterly 13(3): 377–404.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1964. University Students and Politics in Underdeveloped Countries. Minerva 3(1): 15–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. MacLeod, Roy. 2007. Ave atque Vale. Minerva 45(4): 361–363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Maddox, John. 1964. Choice and the Scientific Community. Minerva 2(2): 141–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. McCarthy, Kathleen D. 1987. From Cold War to Cultural Development: The International Cultural Activities of the Ford Foundation. Daedalus 116(1): 93–117.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Merton, Robert K. 1938. Science, Technology and Society in Seventeenth Century England. Osiris 4(2): 360–632.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Merton, Robert K. 1985. George Sarton: Episodic Recollections by an Unruly Apprentice. Isis 76(4): 470–486.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Moravcsik, Michael J. 1966. Some Practical Suggestions for the Improvement of Science in Developing Countries. Minerva 4(3): 381–390.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Neavill, Gordon B., and Christine C. Schnusenberg. 1984. Bibliography of the Published Works of Professor Shils, including Edward Shils, The Academic Ethic: The Report of a Study Group of the International Council on the Future of the University. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Nye, Mary Jo. 2011. Michael Polanyi and His Generation: The Social Construction of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  70. Parsons, Talcott, and Edward Shils (eds.). 1951. Toward a General Theory of Action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Pick, Daniel. 2009. In Pursuit of the Nazi Mind? The Deployment of Psychoanalysis in the Allied Struggle against Germany. Psychoanalysis and History 11(2): 210–236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Pick, Daniel. 2012. The Pursuit of the Nazi Mind: Hitler, Hess and the Analysts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Polanyi, Michael. 1958. Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Polanyi, Michael. 1967. The Growth of Science in Society. Minerva 5(4): 533–545.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Salam, Abdus. 1966. The Isolation of the Scientist in Developing Countries. Minerva 4(4): 461–466.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Saunders, Frances Stonor. 1999a. Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War. London: Granta.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Saunders, Frances Stonor. 1999b. The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters. New York: The New Press.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Schneider, Thomas. 2012. Die Konstitution der Gesellschaft im Spannungsfeld konfligierender Wertbindung: Zur Entwicklung des Werkes von Edward Albert Shils (1910–1995). PhD dissertation, University Erfurt.

  79. Schnusenberg, Christine C., and Gordon B. Neavill. 1997. Bibliography of the Published Works of Professor Edward Shils. School of Library and Information Science Faculty Research Publications, Paper 59 (Wayne State University). http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/slisfrp/59.

  80. Scott, William Taussig, and Martin X. Moleski. 2005. Michael Polanyi: Scientist and Philosopher. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  81. Scott-Smith, Giles. 2002. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, the End of Ideology and the 1955 Milan Conference: ‘Defining the Parameters of Discourse’. Journal of Contemporary History 37(3): 437–455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Scott-Smith, Giles. 2003. The Politics of Apolitical Culture: The Congress for Cultural Freedom, the CIA, and Post-war American Hegemony. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Shattock, Michael. (ed.). 1996. In Memory of Edward Shils. Minerva 34(1): 1–129.

  84. Shattock, Michael. 1995. Edward Shils. Minerva 33(1): 1–3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Shils, Edward A. (ed.). 1961a. The Logic of Personal Knowledge. Essays Presented to Michael Polanyi on His Seventieth Birthday, 11th March 1961. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Shils, Edward A. 1938[1972]. Limitations on the Freedom of Research and Teaching in the Social Sciences. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 200: 144–164. Reprinted 1972 in The Intellectuals and the Powers and Other Essays, Edward Shils, 307–332. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  87. Shils, Edward A. 1948a. The Atomic Bomb in World Politics. London: National Peace Council.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Shils, Edward A. 1948b. The Present State of American Sociology. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Shils, Edward A. 1950[1975]. Primary Groups in the American Army. In Continuities in Social Research: Studies in the Scope and Method of ‘The American Soldier’, eds. Robert Merton and Paul F. Lazersfeld, 19-3. New York: Glencoe. Reprinted 1975 in Center and Periphery: Essays in Macrosociology, Selected Papers of Edward Shils, vol. 2, ed. Edward Shils. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  90. Shils, Edward A. 1951. The Study of the Primary Group. In The Policy Sciences: Recent Developments in Scope and Methods, eds. Harold D. Lasswell, and Daniel Lerner, 44–69. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Shils, Edward A. 1954[1972]. The Scientific Community: Thoughts after Hamburg, Science and Freedom, No. 1 (November 1954). Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 10(5): 151–155. Reprinted 1972 in The Intellectuals and the Powers, Edward Shils, 204–212. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  92. Shils, Edward A. 1955[1972]. The Intellectuals: Great Britain. Encounter 4(4): 5–16. Reprinted 1972 in The Intellectuals and the Powers and Other Essays, ed. Edward Shils, 135–143. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  93. Shils, Edward A. 1956a. Milan Conference. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 12(2): 38–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Shils, Edward A. 1956b. The Torment of Secrecy: The Background and Consequences of American Security Policies. Glencoe: The Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Shils, Edward A. 1961b[1970, 1975, 1982]. ‘Centre and Periphery’. In The Logic of Personal Knowledge. Essays Presented to Michael Polanyi on His Seventieth Birthday, 11th March 1961, ed. Edward A. Shils, 117–130. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Reprinted 1975 in Centre and Periphery: Essays in Macrosociology, Edward A. Shils, 3–15. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Reprinted 1982 in The Constitution of Society, Edward A. Shils, 93–109. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  96. Shils, Edward A. 1961c. The Calling of Sociology. In Theories of Society, eds. Talcott Parsons, and Edward Shils, 143–148. New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Shils, Edward A. 1967. The Central Intelligence Agency and the Universities II. Chronicle Section. Minerva 5(4): 614–620.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Shils, Edward A. 1970a [1980]. Tradition, Ecology and Institution in the History of Sociology. Daedalus 99(4): 760–825. Reprinted in Edward Shils. 1980. The Calling of Sociology and Other Essays on the Pursuit of Learning, Selected Papers of Edward Shils, vol. 3, 188–191. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1980.

  99. Shils, Edward A. 1970b. The Hole in the Centre: University Government in the United States. Minerva 8(1): 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Shils, Edward A. 1971. Of Pride and Men of Little Faith. Minerva 9(1): 1–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Shils, Edward A. 1972a. The Intellectuals and the Powers and Other Essays. Selected Papers of Edward Shils, vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  102. Shils, Edward A. 1972b. Minerva: The Past Decade and the Next. Minerva 10(1): 1–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Shils, Edward A. 1972c. The Invitation to Caesar. Minerva 10(4): 513–518.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Shils, Edward A. 1974. An Unresolved Dilemma. Minerva 12(3): 295–302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Shils, Edward A. 1975. Center and Periphery: Essays in Macrosociology. Selected Papers of Edward Shils, vol. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  106. Shils, Edward A. 1975b. Center and Periphery: Selected Papers, vol. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Shils, Edward A. 1975c. The Academic Ethos under Strain. Minerva 13(1): 1–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Shils, Edward A. 1976. A Great Citizen of the Republic of Science: Michael Polanyi, 1892–1976. Minerva 14(1): 1–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Shils, Edward A. 1982. The Constitution of Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Shils, Edward A. 1986. The Universality of Science. In Zeugen des Wissens, ed. Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, 819–836. Mainz: Hase und Koehler.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Shils, Edward A. 1987a. Science and Scientists in the Public Arena. American Scholar 56(2): 185–202.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Shils, Edward A. 1987b. Joseph Ben-David (1920–1986): A Memoir. Minerva 25(1/2): 201–205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Shils, Edward A. 1993. Thirty Years of Minerva. Index to Volumes I–XXX (1962–1992), 3–4. London: Minerva Quarterly Review Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Shils, Edward A. 1996. Edward Shils’ Contributions to Minerva. Minerva 34(1): 125–127.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Shils, Edward A. 1997. Portraits: A Gallery of Intellectuals, ed. Joseph Epstein. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  116. Shils, Edward A. 2006. A Fragment of a Sociological Autobiography: The History of My Pursuit of a Few Ideas. ed. Steven Grosby. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.

  117. Shils, Edward A., and Henry V. Dicks. 1951. The Soviet Army. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Shils, Edward A., and Morris Janowitz. 1948[1975]. Cohesion and Disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II. Public Opinion Quarterly 12(2): 280–315. Reprinted 1975 in Center and Periphery: Essays in Macrosociology, Selected Papers of Edward Shils, vol. 2, ed. Edward A. Shils, 345–383. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  119. Shils, Edward A. (ed.). 1968. Criteria for Scientific Development: Public Policy and National Goals: A Selection of Articles from Minerva. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Sisman, Adam. 2010. Hugh Trevor-Roper: The Biography. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Smith, R. Harris. 1972[1981]. OSS: The Secret History of America’s First Central Intelligence Agency. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Second edition 1981.

  122. Taubert, Niels C. 2012. Minerva and the Development of Science (Policy) Studies. Minerva 50(3): 261–275.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Toulmin, Stephen. 1964. The Complexity of Scientific Choice: A Stocktaking. Minerva 2(3): 343–359.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Warner, Michael. 1995. Origins of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, 1949–50. Studies in Intelligence 38(5): 89–98.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Warner, Michael. 1998. The CIA’s Office of Policy Coordination: From NSC 10/2 to NSC 68. International Journal of Intelligence and Counter-intelligence 11(2): 211–219.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. Weinberg, Alvin. 1963. Criteria for Scientific Choice. Minerva 1(2): 159–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Weinberg, Alvin. 1965. Scientific Choice and Biomedical Science. Minerva 4(1): 3–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  128. Weinberg, Alvin. 1968. Reflections on Big Science. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  129. Weinberg, Alvin. 1978. The Obligations of Citizenship in the Republic of Science. Minerva 16(1): 1–3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Weingart, Peter. 2012. Minerva—50 Years Reflecting on Science in Society. Minerva 50(3): 255–259.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  131. Wilford, Hugh. 2008. The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  132. Winks, Robin. 1987. Cloak and Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939–1961. New York: William Morrow.

    Google Scholar 

  133. Wittner, Lawrence S. 2009. Confronting the Bomb: A Short History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Ziman, John. 1978. Solidarity within the republic of science. Minerva 16(1): 4–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  135. Zuckerman, Harriet, and Robert Merton. 1971. Patterns of Evaluation in Science: Institutionalisation, Structure and Functions of the Referee System. Minerva 9(1): 66–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This paper draws upon my experience as Editor of Minerva between 2000 and 2008. Earlier versions have benefitted from many generous comments received at seminars I have given at the University of British Columbia, the University of Leeds, the Institute for Advanced Studies at Durham University, Oxford University, the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, the National Air and Space Museum at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, and the Lichtenberg-Kolleg at the University of Göttingen. For personal comment, I wish to record my thanks to Mrs. Gillian Anderson, Dr. Harold Orlans, and Professor Bruce Smith. For permission to consult the Edward Shils papers, I am grateful to his executor, Dr. Joseph Epstein. For their assistance in accessing these and related archives, I thank the staff of the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas and the Special Collections Research Center of the Joseph Regenstein Library at the University of Chicago. For contextual information, I am grateful to the Archivists of the Ford Foundation and the staff of the Library of Congress. For their encouragement, my sincere thanks are also due to Professor W. Roger Louis of the University of Texas; Mr. Daniel Greenberg, of Washington, DC; Professor Nicolaas Rupke of the University of Göttingen; Professor Arie Rip of the University of Twente; Professor Everett Mendelsohn of Harvard University; and my wife, Dr. Kimberley Webber, of Sydney. For their patience and editorial help, I am indebted to Dr. Niels Taubert and Professor Peter Weingart, currently Editor of Minerva. Research on which this paper is based was assisted by a travel grant from the Earhart Foundation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roy MacLeod.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

MacLeod, R. Consensus, Civility, and Community: The Origins of Minerva and the Vision of Edward Shils. Minerva 54, 255–292 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11024-016-9305-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • History of Minerva
  • Edward Shils
  • Academic freedom
  • Congress for Cultural Freedom