Three Ethical Challenges of Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity
In 2017, the WannCry and NotPeya showed that attacks targeting the cyber component of infrastructures (e.g. attacks on power plants), services (e.g. attacks to banks or hospitals servers), and endpoint devices (e.g. attacks on mobiles and personal computers) have a great disruptive potential and could cause serious damage to our information societies. WannaCry crippled hundreds of IT systems. And NotPetya costed pharmaceutical giant Merck, shipping firm Maersk and logistics company FedEx around US$300 million each. At a global level, cyber crime causes multi-billion dollar losses to businesses, with average losses per organization running from US$3.8 to US$16.8 million in the smallest and largest quartiles respectively (Accenture 2017).
The picture did not improve in 2018. Data show that over the year 2.6 million people encountered newly discovered malware on a daily basis.1Attacks ranged over 1.7 million different forms of malware, and 60% of the attacks lasted less than 1 h. Cyber...
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