Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 915–919 | Cite as

Impact of legal measures prevent transplant tourism: the interrelated experience of The Philippines and Israel

  • Benita Padilla
  • Gabriel M. DanovitchEmail author
  • Jacob Lavee
Scientific Contribution


We describe the parallel changes that have taken place in recent years in two countries, Israel and The Philippines, the former once an “exporter” of transplant tourists and the latter once an “importer” of transplant tourists. These changes were in response to progressive legislation in both countries under the influence of the Declaration of Istanbul. The annual number of Israeli patients who underwent kidney transplantation abroad decreased from a peak of 155 in 2006 to an all-time low of 35 in 2011 while in the Philippines the annual number of foreign transplant recipients fell from 531 in 2007 to two in 2011. The experience of these two countries provides a “natural experiment” on the potential impact of legal measures to prevent transplant tourism.


Transplant tourism Israel transplant Philippines transplant 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benita Padilla
    • 1
  • Gabriel M. Danovitch
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Jacob Lavee
    • 3
  1. 1.National Kidney and Transplant InstituteManilaPhilippines
  2. 2.Kidney Transplant Program, Department of MedicineDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Heart Transplantation Unit, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Tel Hashomer and the Sackler Faculty of MedicineLeviev Heart Center, Sheba Medical CenterTel AvivIsrael
  4. 4.Division of NephrologyDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA

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