Skip to main content

Technique for Assessing the Reproduction Error of the Complex Reflection Coefficient Unit in Waveguides

A technique for determining the standard deviation and non-excluded systematic error in reproducing the complex reflection coefficient unit in waveguides has been proposed and a corresponding technique has been developed. It has been established that the reproduction error depends on the value of the measured complex reflection coefficient for a specific frequency, and its dominant component is due to the error in measuring the depth of short-circuit references. It is advisable to use the obtained results of determining the reproduction error in the form of tables in order to assess the error in the measurement results of the complex reflection coefficient. The proposed technique can be used to determine the accuracy indicators of measurements of the complex reflection coefficient when creating the State Primary Standard for the complex reflection coefficient unit in standardized waveguides at frequencies up to 178.4 GHz.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.


  1. A. V. Koudelny, I. M. Malay, V. A. Perepelkin, and I. P. Chirkov, “The working standard of the unit of power of electromagnetic waves in the frequency range from 37.5 to 220 GHz,” Izmer. Tekhn., No. 1, 52–57 (2020), 10.32446/0368-1025it.2020-1-52-57.

  2. A. V. Gusinskii, “Measuring complex for testing and calibrating power meters in the millimetre wavelength range,” Dokl. Belorus. Gos. Univ. Informat. Radioelectr., No. 6 (124), 50–54 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  3. V. A. Semenov, A. V. Koudelny, V. A. Perepyolkin, and I. P. Chirkov, “Prospects of standards development in the field of microwave power measurements in radio frequency ducts,” Alman. Sovr. Metrol., No. 2 (18), 46–64 (2019).

  4. I. M. Malay, “Problems of developing the system of metrological support in the field of radio engineering measurements,” Proc. 11th Russ. Sci. Techn. Conf. Metrology in Radio Electronics, Mendeleevo, June 19–21, 2018, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (2018), Vol. 1, pp. 5–18.

  5. I. V. Kuznetsov, I. M. Malay, and V. A. Semyonov, “State and prospects for the development of methods for reproducing the complex reflection and transmission coefficient units in waveguides,” ibid., Vol. 2, pp. 75–82.

  6. A. S. Bondarenko, A. S. Borovkov, I. M. Malay, and V. A. Semyonov, “The method for determining the metrological performance of unit reference standards of reflection coefficient in waveguides at millimetre waves,” Izmer. Tekhn., No. 1, 58–62 (2020), 10.32446/0368-1025it.2020-1-58-62.

  7. A. S. Doinikov, Lectures on Metrology, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  8. T. N. Siraya, “Methods of data processing in measurements and metrological models,” Izmer. Tekhn., No. 1, 9–14 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. J. P. Dunsmore, Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements: with Advanced VNA Techniques [Russian translation], Tekhnosfera, Moscow (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  10. M. Hiebel, Fundamentals of Vector Network Analysis [Russian translation], Izd. MEI, Moscow (2018), 2nd ed.

  11. V. G. Guba, A. A. Ladur, and A. A. Savin, “Classification and analysis of calibration methods of vector network analyzers,” Sborn. Dokl. Tomsk. Gos. Univ. Sist. Upravl. Radioelectr., No. 2 (24), Pt, 1, 149–155 (2011).

  12. V. G. Guba, A. A. Savin, O. N. Bykova, and I. A. Ivashchenko, “Modern method of verifying the accuracy characteristics of vector network analyzers,” Abstr. 9th Russ. Sci. Techn. Conf. Metrology in Radio Electronics, Mendeleevo, June 17–19, 2014, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (2014), pp. 94–105.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. S. Bondarenko.

Additional information

Translated from Izmeritel'naya Tekhnika, No. 11, pp. 55–59, November, 2021

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bondarenko, A.S., Borovkov, A.S., Malay, I.M. et al. Technique for Assessing the Reproduction Error of the Complex Reflection Coefficient Unit in Waveguides. Meas Tech 64, 922–927 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • complex reflection coefficient
  • reproduction error
  • waveguide