Measurement Techniques

, Volume 57, Issue 2, pp 125–131 | Cite as

Results of Measuring the Avogadro and Planck Constants for a Redefinition of the Kilogram and Mole

  • V. Dcbu. Ivashchuk
  • S. A. Kononogov
  • V. N. Mel’nikov

Work on the redefinition of the kilogram and mole underway in many countries with experiments employing watt balances is analyzed. It is found that at present the reasons for the discrepancies in measurements of the Avogadro and Planck constants by different methods are not clear and that the required measurement accuracy has not been attained. Thus, studies with watt balances and crystalline silicon spheres must be continued in the framework of new projects.


Avogadro and Planck constants units of the amounts of matter and mass watt balance 


  1. 1.
    I. M. Mills et al., "Redefinition of the kilogram: a decision whose time has come," Metrologia, 42, 71–80 (2005).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. A. Kononogov and V. N. Melnikov, "The fundamental physical constants, the gravitational constant, and the SEE space experiment project," Izmer. Tekhn., No. 6, 3–9 (2005); Measur. Techn., 48, No. 6, 521–536 (2005).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. A. Kononogov, Metrology and the Fundamental Physical Constants [in Russian], Standartinform, Moscow (2008).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. M. Mills et al., "Redefinition of the kilogram, ampere, kelvin, and mole: a proposed approach to implementing CIPM recommendation 1 (CI-2005)," Metrologia, 43, 227–246 (2006).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Recommendation G1, CCM (2010),, accessed Oct. 15, 2013.
  6. 6.
    P. J. Mohr, B. N. Taylor, and D. B. Newell, "CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2010," ArXiv, 1203.5425.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. K. Isaev, S. A. Kononogov, and V. V. Khruschov, "On the redefinition of the four base SI units," Izmer. Tekhn., No. 2, 3–8 (2013); Measur. Techn., 56, No. 2, 113–120 (2013).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Gläser et al., "Redefinition of the kilogram and the impact on its future dissemination," Metrologia, 47, 419–428 (2010).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. L. Steiner et al., "Uncertainty improvements of the NIST electronic kilogram," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 56, No. 2, 592–596 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Andreas et al. (IAC), "Counting the atoms in a 28Si crystal for a new kilogram definition," Metrologia, 48, S1–13 (2011).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. G. Steele et al., "Reconciling Planck constant determinations via watt balance and enriched-silicon measurements at NRC Canada," Metrologia, 49, L8–10 (2012).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    I. A. Robinson, "Toward the redefinition of the kilogram: a measurement of the Planck constant using the NPL Mar II watt balance," Metrologia, 49, 113–156 (2012).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. D. Ivashchuk, S. A. Kononogov, and V. N. Melnikov, "An analysis of the results of measurements of the fine structure constant and their effect on the new definitions of the SI units," Izmer. Tekhn., No. 8, 25–29 (2011); Measur. Techn., 54, No. 8, 887–892 (2011).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Publishable JRP Summary Report for JRP SIB03, Oct. 2012,, accessed Oct. 15, 2013.
  15. 15.
    C. P. Sasso, E. Massa, and G. Mana, "The watt-balance operation: magnetic force and induced electric potential on a conductor in a magnetic field," Metrologia, 50, 164–169 (2013).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Steiner, "History and progress on accurate measurements of the Planck constant," Rep. Prog. Phys., 76, 016101–016146 (2013).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Picard et al., "Progress on the BIPM watt balance," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 58, 924–929 (2009).CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Picard et al., "The BIPM watt balance: improvements and developments," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 60, 2378–2386 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Stock, "Watt balance experiments for the determination of the Planck constant and the redefinition of the kilogram," Metrologia, 50, R1–R16 (2013).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. A. Sanchez et al., "Elimination of mass-exchange errors in the NRC watt balance," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 62, 1506–1511 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. B. Newell, "The possible contribution of gravity measurements to the difference between the NIST and NRC watt balance results," Metrologia, 50, 337–344 (2013).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Z. Jiang et al., "On the gravimetric contribution to watt balance experiments," Metrologia, 50, 452–471 (2013).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. P. Sasso, E. Massa, and G. Mana, "The distribution of the electric current in a watt-balance coil," ArXiv, 1307.4040.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Dcbu. Ivashchuk
    • 1
  • S. A. Kononogov
    • 1
  • V. N. Mel’nikov
    • 1
  1. 1.All-Russia Research Institute of Metrological Service (VNIIMS)MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations