Measurement Techniques

, Volume 55, Issue 8, pp 949–954 | Cite as

Contact current modulators with a doubled frequency output

Electromagnetic Measurements

It is shown that the advantage of contact modulators with an output at a doubled frequency is considerably lower zero shift and drift (time and temperature) and opens up the practical possibility of utilizing not only the nanovolt but also the picovolt ranges of amplified voltages. Two circuits for constructing such modulators are considered. A highly sensitive amplifier of the modulator-demodulator type is described with modulation at doubled frequency, and areas of its application are indicated.


contact modulator amplification of weak constant or slowly varying signals 


  1. 1.
    V. M. Shlyandin, Principles of Automation [in Russian], Gosenergoizdat, Moscow, Leningrad (1958).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. A. Kalinchuk and O. A. Pichugin, Small-Signal Modulators [in Russian], Energiya, Leningrad (1980).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. A. Rozenblat, Magnetic Components of Automation and Computer Technology [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1966).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yu. V. Afanasiev, Fluxgate Devices [in Russian], Energiya, Leningrad (1986).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Musmann and Y. Afanassiev, Fluxgate Magnetometers for Space Research, Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt (2010).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. S. Roitman, “A system for obtaining two equal quadrature voltage vectors,” Izmer. Tekhn., No. 3, 40 (1962).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. B. Dub, V. A. Nichoga, and A. K. Zakharkin, “Local active low-threshold induction sensors in electroprospecting work using the ZSB and ZSMT methods,” Geofiz. Appar., No. 102, 28–34 (1999).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mendeleev All-Russia Research Institute of Metrology (VNIIM)St. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations