Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 206–243 | Cite as

Beyond V40.31: Narrative Phenomenology of Wandering in Autism and Dementia

  • Olga SolomonEmail author
  • Mary C. Lawlor
Original Paper


Research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and other types of dementia describes a behaviour called ‘wandering’, a term that denotes movement through space lacking intention or exact destination, as when a person is disoriented or not self-aware. In the U.S., ‘wandering’ in both ASD and AD has been examined mostly from a management and prevention perspective. It prioritizes safety while primarily overlooking personal experiences of those who ‘wander’ and their families, thus limiting the range of potentially effective strategies to address this issue. Communicative challenges faced by many people diagnosed with ASD and AD further obscure the experiential, existential aspects of ‘wandering’. This article reflects an increasing concern of social science scholars interested in whether and how the conceptual and practical strategies to address ‘wandering’ are informed by the situated experiences of people with cognitive and developmental disabilities and their families. We examine ‘wandering’ at the intersections of personal experience, family life, clinical practice, public health policy, and legislation, as a conceptually rich site where notions of personhood, subjectivity, intentionality, and quality of life powerfully and consequentially converge to impact the lives of many people with ASD and AD, and their families. We draw upon critical autism studies describing how attributions of personhood, subjectivity, intentionality, rational agency, and moral autonomy of people with ASD have been contingent upon the norms and conventions governing movement of the human body through space (Hilton, Afr Am Rev 50(2):221–235, 2017). When this movement is deemed aberrant, the person may be construed as irrational, a danger to self because of a lack of self-awareness, and a danger to others because of a lack of empathy. These attributions put the person at risk of being excluded from the considerations and, more importantly, the obligations of the ‘moral community’ to ensure that he or she has a ‘good human life’ (Barnbaum, The Ethics of Autism: Among Them but not of Them. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 2008; Silvers and Francis, Metaphilosophy 40(3/4):475–498, 2009). Using ethnographic, narrative phenomenological (Mattingly, The Paradox of Hope: Journeys through a Clinical Borderland. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), and medical humanities (Charon, JAMA 286:1897–1902, 2001; Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006) approaches, we examine multiple perspectives on ‘wandering’ in ASD and AD across narrative discourse genres, institutional contexts, and media of representation. We argue for an extension of the prevention and management view to focus not only on safety but also on what phenomenologist Merleau-Ponty (1962) called “having a world” (p. 146). The analysis is intended to inform clinical practice, policy and public health efforts to enhance understanding of first and second person perspectives on ‘wandering’ in order to improve the participation and quality of life of people with ASD and AD who ‘wander’, and their families.


Alzheimer's disease Autism spectrum disorder Dementia Family life Narrative phenomenology Wandering 



We thank the families who participated in this research and shared their stories and experiences with us.


This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Mental Health, R01 MH089474 and National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development R01 HD 38878; 2 R01 HD 38878.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Olga Solomon and Mary C. Lawlor declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Appropriate IRB approval was acquired and maintained as required for all research sites.


  1. Algase, Donna L., D. Helen Moore, C. Vandeweerd, and D. J. Gavin-Dreschnack 2007 Mapping the maze of terms and definitions in dementia-related wandering. Aging & Mental Health 11: 686-698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, Connie, J. Kiely Law, Amy Daniels, Catherine Rice, David S. Mandell, Louis Hagopian, and Paul A. Law 2012 Occurrence and family impact of elopement in children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics 130(5): 870-877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association 2013 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkins, Kim 2000 Personal Identity and the Importance of One’s Own Body: A Response to Derek Parfit. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8(3): 329-349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Autism Speaks 2012 Aggressive and Challenging Behaviors Tool Kit.
  6. Autism Speaks 2016 Bipartisan senators introduce bill to protect individuals who wander.
  7. Autistic Self Advocacy Network 2011 Joint letter to CDC on proposed ICD-9-CM wandering code.
  8. Bagatell, Nancy 2007 Orchestrating Voices: Autism, Identity and the Power of Discourse. Disability & Society, 22(4): 413-426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagatell, Nancy 2010 From cure to community: Transforming notions of autism. Ethos 38: 33-55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ballenger, Jesse F. 2006 Self, Senility, and Alzheimer’s Disease in Modern America: A history. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Barnbaum, Deborah R. 2008 The Ethics of Autism: Among Them but not of Them. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bayley, John 1999 Elegy for Iris. New York: Saint Martin Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bérubé, Michael 2009 Equality, Freedom, and/or Justice for All: A Response to Martha Nussbaum. Metaphilosophy, 40 (3/4), Special Issue: Cognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy: 352–365.Google Scholar
  14. Bickenbach, Jerome E., Felder, F., & Schmitz, B. (Eds.) 2014 Disability and the good human life. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Briggs, Charles L., and Richard Bauman 1992 Genre, intertextuality, and social power. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 2(2): 131-172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bruner, Jerome 2014 Narrative, culture, and psychology. In Reflective Thinking in Educational Settings: A Cultural Framework. Alessandro Antonietti, Emanuela Confalonieri, and Antonella Marchetti, eds. Pp. 221-226. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Call, Nathan A., Ryan S. Pabico, Addie J. Findley, and Amber L. Valentino 2011 Differential reinforcement with and without blocking as treatment for elopement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 44: 903-907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carlson, Licia 2010 Who’s the Expert? Rethinking authority in the face of intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 54(s1): 58-65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cartwright, Samuel 1851 Diseases and peculiarities of the Negro Race. De Bow’s Review. Southern and Western States. Volume XI, New Orleans. Reprinted by AMS Press, Inc., New York, 1967.
  20. Chamak, Brigitte 2008 Autism and social movements: French parents’ associations and international autistic individuals’ organizations. Sociology of Health & Illness 30: 76-96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Charon, Rita 2001 Narrative medicine: A model for empathy, reflection, profession, and trust. JAMA 286: 1897-1902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Charon, Rita 2006 Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Chew, Kristina 2013 Autism and the Art of the Translator. In Worlds of Autism: Across the Spectrum of Neurological Difference, edited by Joyce Davidson, and Michael Orsini. Pp. 305 – 317. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  24. Cipriani, Gabriele, Claudio Lucetti, Angelo Nuti, and Sabrina Danti 2014 Wandering and dementia. Psychogeriatrics 14: 135-142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coleman, Erica A. 1993 Physical restraint use in nursing home patients with dementia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270(17): 2114–2115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Damasio, Antonio 2010 Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  27. Davenport, Charles B. 1915 The Feebly Inhibited: Nomadism, or the Wandering Impulse, with Special Attention to Heredity. Inheritance of Temperament. (Publication No. 236). Carnegie Institution of Washington. Washington, D.C.: Press of Gibson Brothers, Inc.Google Scholar
  28. Davidson, Joyce and Michael Orsini 2013 The Shifting Horizons of Autism Online. In Worlds of Autism: Across the Spectrum of Neurological Difference, edited by Joyce Davidson, and Michael Orsini. Pp. 285 – 303. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DeBaggio, Thomas 2002 Losing my Mind: An Intimate Look at Life with Alzheimer’s. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  30. Fein, Elizabeth 2015a Autism: Challenging Expert Models. Discussant Remarks. Society for Psychological Anthropology Biennial Meeting, Boston, April 11, 2015.Google Scholar
  31. Fein, Elizabeth 2015b Making Meaningful Worlds: Role-Playing Subcultures and the Autism Spectrum. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 39(2):299-321.Google Scholar
  32. Fisher, James T. 2008 No search, no subject? Autism and the American conversion narrative. In Autism and Representation. Mark Osteen, ed. Pp. 51–64. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Gallagher, S. 2000 Philosophical conceptions of the self: Implications for cognitive science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4: 14-21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garro, Linda and Cheryl Mattingly 2000a Narrative as construct and construction. In Narrative and the Cultural Construction of Illness and Healing. Cheryl Mattingly and Linda C. Garro, eds., pp. 1-49. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  35. Garro, Linda and Cheryl Mattingly 2000b Narrative turns. In Narrative and the Cultural Construction of Illness and Healing. Cheryl Mattingly and Linda C. Garro, eds., pp. 259-269. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  36. Genova, Lisa 2015 Still Alice. New York: Simon & SchusterGoogle Scholar
  37. George, Daniel R. 2010 Overcoming the social death of dementia through language. The Lancet 376: 586-587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Geertz, Clifford 1974 “From the native’s point of view”: On the nature of anthropological understanding.Google Scholar
  39. Gibson, James J 1977 The Theory of Affordances. In Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing: Toward an Ecological Psychology. R Shaw and J Bransford, eds., pp. 67–82. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  40. Gilliard, Jane, and Mary Marshall 2011 Transforming the Quality of Life for People with Dementia Through Contact with the Natural World: Fresh Air on My Face. London: Jessica KingsleyGoogle Scholar
  41. Goffman, Erving 1959 The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  42. Grandin, Temple and Catherine Johnson 1995 Thinking in Pictures: My Life with Autism. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  43. Grandin, Temple and Catherine Johnson 2006 Animals in Translation: Using Mysteries of Autism to Decode Animal Behavior. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  44. Graby, Steve 2011 Wandering Minds: Autism, Psychogeography, Public Space and the ICD. Presented at the Critical Disability Studies conference “Theorising Normalcy and the Mundane 2011”, at Manchester Metropolitan University on 14th September 2011.Google Scholar
  45. Greenfield, Josh 1972 A Child Called Noah: A Family Journey. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  46. Greenfield, Josh 1986 A Place for Noah. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  47. Greenfield, Josh 1989 A Client Called Noah. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  48. Grinker, Roy Richard 2010 Commentary: On being autistic, and social. Ethos 38(1): 172 - 178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grinker, Roy Richard 2015 Notes on a puzzle piece. Autism 19(6): 643 - 645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hacking, Ian 1998 The Mad Travelers: Reflections on the Reality of Transient Mental Illness. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Harris, Jill F. and Adrienne P. Robertiello 2015 Autism and safety: It’s unpredictable. Autism Spectrum News 7(4): 10-12.Google Scholar
  52. Hesse, Herman 1957/1972 Wandering: Notes and Sketches. Transl., James Wright. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.Google Scholar
  53. Hilton, Leon J. 2017 Avonte’s Law: Autism, Wandering, and the Racial Surveillance of Neurological Difference. African American Review 50(2): 221- 235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ingold, Tim 2007 Lines: A Brief History. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Ingold, Tim 2015 The Life of Lines. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Ingold, Tim and Jo Lee Vergunst 2008 Introduction. In Ways of Walking: Ethnography and Practice on Foot. pp. 1–20. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Interagency for Autism Coordinating Committee 2010 U.S. Department of Health And Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee Full Committee Meeting Friday, October 22, 2010
  58. Interagency for Autism Coordinating Committee 2011 IACC Letter to Secretary Sebelius on Wandering, February 9, 2011.
  59. Kapp, Steven K., Kristen Gillespie-Lynch, Lauren E. Sherman, and Ted Hutman 2013 Deficit, difference, or both? Autism and neurodiversity. Developmental Psychology 49(1): 59-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kittay, Eva Feder 2001 When Caring Is Just and Justice Is Caring: Justice and Mental Retardation. Public Culture, 13(3): 557-579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kittay, Eva Feder 2005 At the Margins of Moral Personhood. Ethics 116(1): 100-131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kittay, Eva Feder 2009 The Personal Is Philosophical Is Political: A Philosopher and Mother of a Cognitively Disabled Person Sends Notes From the Battlefield. Metaphilosophy 40 (3/4): Special Issue: Cognitive Disability And Its Challenge To Moral Philosophy: 606–627.Google Scholar
  63. Kittay, Eva Feder and Licia Carlson 2009 Introduction: Rethinking philosophical presumptions in light of cognitive disability. Metaphilosophy 40 (3/4): Special Issue: Cognitive Disability And Its Challenge To Moral Philosophy: 307–330.Google Scholar
  64. Kleinman, Arthur 1995 Writing at the margin: Discourse between anthropology and medicine. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  65. Kleinman, Arthur 2009 Global mental health: A failure of humanity. Lancet 374: 603-604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kolker, Robert 2014 The Boy Who Ran: The Life and Death of Avonte Oquendo. New York, Magazine, March 30, 2014.Google Scholar
  67. Kontos, Pia C. 2004 Ethnographic Reflections on Selfhood, Embodiment and Alzheimer’s Disease. Aging and Society 24(6): 829–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kotef, Hagar 2015 Movement and the Ordering of Freedom: On Liberal Governances of Mobility. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lang, Russell, Tonya Davis, Mark O’Reilly, Wendy Machalicek, Mandy Rispoli, Jeff Sigafoos, Giulio Lancioni, and April Regester 2010 Functional analysis and treatment of elopement across two school settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 43(1): 113-118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Livingston, Julie 2009 Debility and the Moral Imagination in Botswana. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Lawlor, Mary C. 2004 Mothering work: negotiating healthcare, illness and disability, and development. In Mothering Occupations. Susan A. Esdaile and Judith A. Olson, eds. Pp. 306-323. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar
  72. Lawlor, Mary C. 2009 Narrative, Development, and Engagement: Intersections in Therapeutic Practices. In Narrative, Self, and Social Practices, Uffe Juul Jensen and Cheryl Mattingly, eds. pp. 199–220. Aarhus: Forlaget Philosophia.Google Scholar
  73. Lawlor, Mary C. 2012 The particularities of engagement: Intersubjectivity in occupational therapy practice. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research: Occupation, Participation and Health 32(4): 151-159.Google Scholar
  74. Lawlor, Mary C. and Olga Solomon 2017 A Phenomenological Approach to the Cultivation of Expertise: Emergent Understandings of Autism. Ethos 45(2): 232-249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lock, Margaret 1997 Decentering the Natural Body: Making Difference Matter. Configurations 5(2): 267-292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lyman, Karen 2000 Bringing the Social Back in: A Critique of the Biomedicalization of Dementia. Aging and Everyday Life 29: 331–50.Google Scholar
  77. Marr, James 1989 Electronic tagging. Nursing Standard, 4(9), 54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Marvasti, Amir 2002 Constructing The Service-Worthy Homeless Through Narrative Editing. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 31, 615-651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Marzulli, John 2016 Family of Avonte Oquendo, Drowned Autistic Student, to Receive 2.7 M in Wrongful Death Suit. New York Daily News, July 28, 2016.Google Scholar
  80. Mattingly, Cheryl 1998 Healing Dramas and Clinical Plots: The Narrative Structure of Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mattingly, Cheryl 2010 The Paradox of Hope: Journeys through a Clinical Borderland. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  82. Mattingly, Cheryl 2014 Moral Laboratories: Family Peril and the Struggle for a Good Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Maynard, Douglas and Jason Turowetz 2017 Doing Diagnosis: Autism, Interaction Order, and the Use of Narrative in Clinical Talk. Social Psychology Quarterly 80(3): 254–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McDermott, Ray 1993 The acquisition of a child by a learning disability. In Seth Chaiklin and Jean Lave (eds). Understanding Practice: Perspectives on activity and context. pp. 269 – 305. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McIlwain, Lori and Wendy Fournier 2012 Lethal Outcomes In Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Wandering/Elopement. National Autism Association, January 20, 2012.Google Scholar
  86. McMahon, Jeff 2002 The Ethics of Killing: Problems on the Margins of Life. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 1962 Phenomenology of Perception. Colin Smith, trans. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  88. Meyerhoff, Barbara 1987 “Life, Not Death in Venice”: Its Second Life. In Judaism Viewed from Within and from Without: Anthropological studies. Harvey E. Goldberg, ed. pp.143-170. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  89. Mukhopadhyaya, Tito Rajarshi 2011 The Gold of the Sunbeams and Other Stories. New York: Arcade Publishing.Google Scholar
  90. National Autism Association 2016 NAA’s Statement to IACC Addresses Wandering Prevention, Avonte’s Law.
  91. Ne’eman, Ari 2010 The Future (and the Past) of Autism Advocacy, or Why the ASA’s Magazine, The Advocate, Wouldn’t Publish this Piece. Disabilities Studies Quarterly 30(10). Retrieved from
  92. Neisser, Ulric, and Robyn Fivush 1994 The Remembering Self: Construction and Accuracy in the Self-Narrative. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ochs, Elinor and Lisa Capps 2001 Living Narrative: Creating Lives in Everyday Storytelling. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  94. O’Loughlin, Marjorie 1995 Intelligent Bodies and Ecological Subjectivities: Merleau-Ponty’s Corrective to Postmodernism’s ‘Subjects’ of Education. White Paper. Philosophy of Education.
  95. Ortega, Francisco 2009 The cerebral subject and the challenge of neurodiversity. BioSocieties 4(4): 425-445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Parfit, Derek 1984 Reasons and Persons. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  97. Park, Clara Claiborne 1967 The Siege: A Family’s Journey into the World of an Autistic Child. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  98. Park, Clara Claiborne 2002 Exiting Nirvana: A Daughter’s Life with Autism. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  99. Pike, Kenneth L. 1967 Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior. 2nd ed. The Hague: De Grouyter Mouton.Google Scholar
  100. Perrin, Christopher J., Stefanie H. Perrin, Elizabeth A. Hill, and Kristin DiNovi 2008 Brief functional analysis and treatment of elopement in preschoolers with autism. Behavioral Interventions 23(2): 87-95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Potocny, Joseph n/d Living with Alzheimer’s.
  102. Potocny, Joseph 2010 Living with Alzhiemer’s (sic): a Conversation if You Will. Xlibris Self-Publishing.Google Scholar
  103. Prince-Hughes, Dawn 2004 Songs of The Gorilla Nation: My Journey Through Autism. New York: Harmony Books.Google Scholar
  104. Prince-Hughes, Dawn 2005 Expecting Teryk: An Exceptional Path to Parenthood. Columbus: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Puar, Jasbir 2009 Prognosis Time: Towards a Geopolitics of Affect, Debility and Capacity, in Between Psychoanalysis and Affect: A Public Feelings Project, José Esteban Muñoz, ed., spec. issue of Women & Performance 19(2): 161–72.Google Scholar
  106. Rice, Catherine E., Benjamin Zablotsky, Rosa M. Avila, Lisa J. Colpe, Laura A. Schieve, Beverly Pringle, and Stephen J. Blumberg 2016 Reported wandering behavior among children with autism spectrum disorder and/or intellectual disability. The Journal of Pediatrics 174: 232-239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Robinson, Louise, Deborah Hutchings, Lynne Corner, Tracy Finch, Julian Hughes, Katie Brittain, and John Bond 2007 Balancing rights and risks: Conflicting perspectives in the management of wandering in dementia. Health, Risk & Society 9(4): 389-406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Shepard, Paul 1967 Man in the Landscape: A Historic View of the Esthetics of Nature. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  109. Sinclair, Jim 1993 Don’t mourn for us. The Autism Network International Newsletter: Our Voice 1(3).
  110. Sinclair, Jim 1998 Is Cure a Goal?
  111. Silverman, Chloe 2008 Fieldwork on another planet: Social science perspectives on the autism spectrum. BioSocieties 3(3): 325-341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Silverman, Chloe 2012 Understanding Autism: Parents, Doctors and the History of a Disorder. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Silvers Anita and Leslei Pickering Francis 2009 Thinking About the Good: Reconfiguring Liberal Metaphysics (or not) for People with Cognitive Disabilities. Metaphilosophy 40 (3/4) Special Issue: Cognitive Disability And Its Challenge To Moral Philosophy: 475–498.Google Scholar
  114. Simon, Jonathan 2002 “Speaking Truth and Power.” Law & Society Review 36(1): 37-44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Singer, Judy 1999 ‘Why can’t You be Normal for Once in Your Life?’ From a ‘Problem with no Name’ to the Emergence of a New Category of Difference. In Disability Discourse, edited by M. Corker & S. French. pp. 57–67. Philadelphia: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Song, Jun-Ah, and Donna Algase 2008 Premorbid characteristics and wandering behavior in persons with dementia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 22(6): 318-327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Solomon, Olga 2010 Sense and the senses: anthropology and the study of autism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 39, 241-259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Solomon, Olga 2013 Autism and affordances of achievement: narrative genres and parenting practices. In The social life of achievement. Nicolas Long and Henrietta Moore (eds.) pp. 120-138. Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  119. Solomon, Olga and Mary C. Lawlor 2013 “And I look down and he is gone”: Narrating autism, elopement and wandering in Los Angeles. Social Science & Medicine 94: 106-114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Spurling, Laurie 2013 Phenomenology and the social world: The philosophy of Merleau-Ponty and its relation to the social sciences. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  121. Taylor, Janelle S 2008 On recognition, caring, and dementia. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 22(4): 313-335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Taylor, Janelle S 2011 Beyond words: Traces of meaning in an abandoned kitchen. Anthropology Now 3(2): 62-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Taylor, Richard 2007 Alzheimer’s from the Inside Out. Baltimore: Health Professions Press.Google Scholar
  124. The Healing Project 2007 Voices of Alzheimer’s: The Healing Companion: Stories for Courage, Comfort and Strength. Brooklyn: LaChance Publishing.Google Scholar
  125. United States Library of Congress 2015 S.163—Avonte’s Law Act of 2015. 114th Congress.
  126. United States Library of Congress 2016 S.2614—Kevin and Avonte’s Law of 2016. Missing Americans Alert Program Act of 2016. 114th Congress.
  127. Whitehouse, Peter 2016 The music of trees: the intergenerative tie between primary care and public health. London Journal of Primary Care 8(2): 26-29. Scholar
  128. Whitehouse, Peter J., and Daniel George 2008 The Myth of Alzheimer’s: What You Aren’t Being Told about Today’s Most Dreaded Diagnosis. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.Google Scholar
  129. Whitehouse, Peter, Danny George, Johanna Wigg and Brett Joseph 2012 From demedicalisation to renaturalisation: Dementia and nature in harmony. In Transforming the Quality of Life for People with Dementia through Contact with the Natural World: Fresh Air on My Face. Jane Gilliard and Mary Marshall, eds. Pp. 55-69. London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  130. Williams, Donna 1992 Nobody Nowhere. London, Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  131. Zeisel, John and Barry Reisberg, Peter Whitehouse, Robert Woods, and Ad Verheul 2016 Ecopsychosocial interventions in cognitive decline and dementia: A new terminology and a new paradigm. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias 31: 1-6. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational TherapyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations