Advertisement

Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 289–298 | Cite as

The Biopsychosocial Model: “Reports of My Death Have Been Greatly Exaggerated”

  • H. Russell SearightEmail author
Review Essay

In 1952, The British psychologist, H. J. Eysenck published a landmark study essentially concluding that psychotherapy was ineffective. Coincidently, at the time that Eysenck announced his findings, the number of psychologists providing psychotherapy was increasing dramatically (Norcross et al. 2011). Eysenck’s (1952) study was an obvious threat to a rapidly growing profession. The next 25 years were characterized by multiple studies refuting Eysenck’s claim culminating in one of the earliest published meta-analyses which concluded that the average person receiving psychotherapy was better off than 75 % of untreated individuals (Smith and Glass 1977)

To date, The Rise and Fall of the Biopsychosocial Model has not incited a scholarly response comparable to that provoked by Eysenck. However, in the 5 years since the book appeared, Ghamei’s (2010) work has been widely cited by both advocates and critics of the biopsychosocial (BPS) model. As the book’s title suggests, Ghaemi devotes over...

Keywords

Medical Student Biopsychosocial Model Medical School Curriculum General System Theory Rochester School 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albert, M. A., Ravenell, J., Glynn, R. J., Khera, A., Halevy, N., & de Lemos, J. A. (2008). Cardiovascular risk indicators and perceived race/ethnic discrimination in the Dallas Heart Study. American Heart Journal, 156(6), 1103-1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayers, D. C., Franklin, P. D., & Ring, D. C. (2013). The role of emotional health in functional outcomes after orthopaedic surgery: Extending the Biopsychosocial Model to orthopaedics. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, 95(21), e165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bardes, C. L. (2012). Defining “patient-centered medicine”. New England Journal of Medicine,366, 782-783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biderman, A., Yeheskel, A., & Herman, J. (2005). The biopsychosocial model—have we made any progress since 1977 ?. Families, Systems, & Health, 23, 379-386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bliss, M. (1999). William Osler: A Life in Medicine. New York: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  6. Brody, H. 2014 Stories and the Biopsychosocial Model. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, 21(3), 191-193. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charlton, B. (1993). Medicine and postmodernity. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 86, 497-499.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, C.R., Ridker, P.M., Ommerborn, M. J., Huisingh, C.E., Coull, B., Buring, J.E. & Berkman, L.F. (2012). Cardiovascular inflammation in healthy women: Multilevel associations with state-level prosperity, productivity, and income inequality. BMC Public Health, 12:211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coulehan, J. (2005). Viewpoint: Today’s professionalism: Engaging the mind but not the heart. Academic Medicine, 80(10), 892-898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crosby, L. E., Quinn, C. T., & Kalinyak, K. A. (2015). A biopsychosocial model for the management of patients with sickle-cell disease: Transitioning to adult medical care. Advances in Therapy, 32(4), 293-305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Decker, H.S. (2013). The Making of DSM-III. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Drack, M., Apfalter, W., & Pouvreau, D. (2007). On the making of a system theory of life: Paul A Weiss and Ludwig Von Bertalanffy’s conceptual connection. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 82(4), 349–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edozien, L. C. (2015). Beyond biology: The biopsychosocial model and its application in obstetrics and gynaecology. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 122(7), 900-903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Engel, G. L. (1977). The Need for a New Medical Model: A Challenge for Biomedicine. Science, 196(4286), 129-136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16, 319-324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gatchel, R. J., McGeary, D. D., McGeary, C. A., & Lippe, B. (2014). Interdisciplinary chronic pain management: Past, present, and future. American Psychologist, 69(2), 119-130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghaemi, S. N. (2010). The Rise and Fall of the Biopsychosocial Model: Reconciling Art and Science in Psychiatry. Baltimore: JHU Press.Google Scholar
  18. Guillemin, M, and E Barnard (2015) George Libman Engel: The biopsychosocial model and the construction of medical practice. The Palgrave Handbook of Social Theory in Health, Illness and Medicine, p. 236. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Herman, J 2005 The Need for a Transitional Model: A Challenge for Biopsychosocial Medicine. Families, Systems, & Health 23(4): 372–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hodgkin, P. (1996). Medicine, postmodernism and the end of certainty. British Medical Journal, 313, 1568-1569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keady, J., Jones, L., Ward, R., Koch, S., Swarbrick, C., Hellström, I., & Williams, S. (2013). Introducing the bio‐psycho‐social‐physical model of dementia through a collective case study design. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22(19-20), 2768-2777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kirian, K., Sears, S. & DeAntonio, H. (2012). Sudden cardiac arrest: A biopsychosocial approach to patient management of ventricular fibrillation and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. In Stress Proof the Heart. New York: SpringerGoogle Scholar
  23. Laing, RD 1967 The Politics of Experience. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  24. McDaniel, S. H. & Fogarty, C. T. (2009). What primary care psychology has to offer the patient-centered medical home. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 483-90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McKay, R., McDonald, R., Lie, D., & McGowan, H. (2012). Reclaiming the best of the biopsychosocial model of mental health care and ‘recovery’ for older people through a ‘person-centered’ Approach. Australasian Psychiatry, 20(6), 492-495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Merkel, WT 1983 The Family and Family Medicine: Should this Marriage be Saved? Journal of Family Practice, 17: 857–862.Google Scholar
  27. Natale-Pereira, A., Enard, K. R., Nevarez, L., & Jones, L. A. (2011). The role of patient navigators in eliminating health disparities. Cancer, 117(S15), 3541-3550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Norcross, JC, GR VandenBos, and DK Freedheim 2011 History of Psychotherapy: Continuity and Change. 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  29. O’Connor, B. B., Eisenberg, D. M., Buring, J. E., Liang, C. L., Osypiuk, K., Levy, D. B., & Wayne, P. M. (2015). Within-team Patterns of communication and referral in multimodal Treatment of chronic Low Back Pain Patients by an Integrative care Team. Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 4(2), 36-45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pincus, T., Kent, P., Bronfort, G., Loisel, P., Pransky, G., & Hartvigsen, J. (2013). Twenty-five years with the biopsychosocial model of low back pain—is it time to celebrate? A report from the twelfth international forum for primary care research on low back pain. Spine, 38(24), 2118-2123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Raz, M. (2013). What’s Wrong with the Poor? Race, Psychiatry, and the War on Poverty. Chapel Hill: University of North CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  32. Rodríguez, C., López-Roig, S., Pawlikowska, T., Schweyer, F. X., Bélanger, E., Pastor-Mira, M. A., & Tellier, P. P. (2015). The influence of academic discourses on medical students’ identification with the discipline of family medicine. Academic Medicine, 90(5), 660-67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rychlak, J. F. (1973). Introduction to Personality and Psychotherapy: A Theory-Construction Approach. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  34. Schmeidel, A. N., Daly, J. M., Rosenbuam, M. E., Schmuch, G. A., & Jogerst, G. J. (2012). Healthcare professionals’ perspectives on barriers to elder abuse: Detection and reporting in primary care settings. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 24(1), 17–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Searight, H. R. (1994). Psychosocial knowledge and allopathic medicine: Points of convergence and departure. Journal of Medical Humanities, 15(4), 221-232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Searight, H.R. (2010). Practicing Psychology in Primary Care. New York and Berlin: Hogrefe and Huber.Google Scholar
  37. Smith, R. C., Fortin, A. H., Dwamena, F., & Frankel, R. M. (2013). An evidence-based patient-centered method makes the biopsychosocial model scientific. Patient Education and Counseling, 91(3), 265-270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith, M. L., & Glass, G. V. (1977). Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist, 32(9), 752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Szasz, T 1984 The Therapeutic State: Psychiatry in the Mirror of Current Events. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  40. Tai‐Seale, M., McGuire, T. G., & Zhang, W. (2007). Time allocation in primary care office visits. Health Services Research, 42(5), 1871-1894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Taylor, R.B. (2013). Family medicine, the discipline, the specialty, and the physician. In J. L. Buckingham, E. P. Donatelle, A. Thomas & J. E Scherger, (Eds) Family medicine: Principles and practice (R. Taylor Ed.). New York: SpringerGoogle Scholar
  42. Van Oudenhove, L., & Cuypers, S. (2014). The relevance of the philosophical ‘mind–body problem’for the status of psychosomatic medicine: a conceptual analysis of the biopsychosocial model. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 17(2), 201-213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Von Bertalanffy, L. (1973). General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications: Rev Ed. New York: George Braziller.Google Scholar
  44. Williams, G. C., Frankel, R. M., Campbell, T. L., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Research on relationship-centered care and healthcare outcomes from the Rochester Biopsychosocial Program: A self-determination theory integration. Families, Systems, & Health, 18(1), 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Williamson, P., Beitman, B. D., & Katon, W. (1981). Beliefs that foster physician avoidance of psychosocial aspects of health care. The Journal of Family Practice, 13(7), 999-1003.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lake Superior State UniversitySault Sainte MarieUSA

Personalised recommendations