, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 555–561

A framework for synthetic validation of 3D echocardiographic particle image velocimetry

Advances in Biomechanics: from foundations to applications

DOI: 10.1007/s11012-015-0342-6

Cite this article as:
Falahatpisheh, A. & Kheradvar, A. Meccanica (2017) 52: 555. doi:10.1007/s11012-015-0342-6


Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been significantly advanced since its conception in early 1990s. With the advancement of imaging modalities, applications of 2D PIV have far expanded into biology and medicine. One example is echocardiographic particle image velocimetry that is used for in vivo mapping of the flow inside the heart chambers with opaque boundaries. Velocimetry methods can help better understanding the biomechanical problems. The current trend is to develop three-dimensional velocimetry techniques that take advantage of modern medical imaging tools. This study provides a novel framework for validation of velocimetry methods that are inherently three dimensional such as but not limited to those acquired by 3D echocardiography machines. This framework creates 3D synthetic fields based on a known 3D velocity field \({\mathbf{V}}\) and a given 3D brightness field \({\mathbf{B}}\). The method begins with computing the inverse flow \({\mathbf{V}}^{\varvec{*}} \) based on the velocity field \({\mathbf{V}}\). Then the transformation of \({\mathbf{B}}\), imposed by \({\mathbf{V}}\), is calculated using the computed inverse flow according to \({\mathbf{B}}^{\varvec{*}} \left( {\mathbf{x}} \right) = {\mathbf{B}}\left( {{\mathbf{x}} + {\mathbf{V}}^{\varvec{*}} \left( {\mathbf{x}} \right)} \right)\), where x is the coordinates of voxels in \({\mathbf{B}}^{\varvec{*}} \), with a 3D weighted average interpolation, which provides high accuracy, low memory requirement, and low computational time. To check the validity of the framework, we generate pairs of 3D brightness fields by employing Hill’s spherical vortex velocity field. \({\mathbf{B}}\) and the generated \({\mathbf{B}}^{\varvec{*}} \) are then processed by our in-house 3D particle image velocimetry software to obtain the interrelated velocity field. The results indicates that the computed and imposed velocity fields are in agreement.


Particle image velocimetry Hill’s spherical vortex Echocardiography Brightness field Echo-PIV 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
American Heart Association (US)
  • 14GRNT18800013
  • 14POST20530013

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Edwards Lifesciences Center for Advanced Cardiovascular EngineeringUniversity of California, IrvineIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations