Skip to main content
Log in

Benefits of betanin in rotenone-induced Parkinson mice

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Metabolic Brain Disease Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The present study aimed to investigate betanin’s neuroprotective effect in mice with rotenone-induced Parkinson-like motor dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Forty male ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: Sham-veh, Rot-veh, Rot-Bet100 and Rot-Bet200. Rotenone at 2.5 mg/kg/48 h was subcutaneous injected in Rot groups, and betanin at 100 and 200 mg/kg/48 h were given alternately with the rotenone injections in Bet groups for 6 weeks. Motor dysfunctions were evaluated weekly using hanging wire and rotarod tests. Brain oxidative status including malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, with neuronal degeneration in the motor cortex, striatum and substantia nigra par compacta were evaluated. The immunohistochemical densities of tyrosine hydroxylase in striatum and in substantia nigra par compacta were also measured. We found that rotenone significantly decreased the time to fall in a hanging wire test after the 4th week and after the rotarod test at the 6th week (p < 0.05). The percentage of neuronal degeneration in substantia nigra par compacta, striatum and motor cortex significantly increased (p < 0.05), and the tyrosine hydroxylase density in substantia nigra par compacta and in striatum significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Betanin at 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly prevented substantia nigra par compacta, striatum and motor cortex neuronal degeneration (p < 0.05) and maintained tyrosine hydroxylase density in substantia nigra par compacta and in striatum (p < 0.05). These findings appeared concurrently with improved effects on the time to fall in hanging wire and rotarod tests (p < 0.05). Treatment with betanin significantly prevented increased malondialdehyde levels and boosted reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities (p < 0.05). Betanin exhibits neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced Parkinson in mice regarding both motor dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Betanin’s neurohealth benefit relates to its powerful antioxidative property. Therefore, betanin use in neurodegenerative disease is interesting to study.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

Available upon request.


Download references


We thank the Department of Zoology and the Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University.


This study was funded by Department of Zoology and the Faculty of Science (Student Research Project), Kasetsart University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Wachiryah Thong-asa conceived and designed research, analyzed data and wrote the manuscript. Sujira Jedsadavitayakol and Suchawalee Jutarattananon conducted experiments. All authors read and approved the manuscript for publication.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Wachiryah Thong-asa.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

“All applicable international and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed”.

Consent to participate

All authors agree to participate.

Consent for publication

All authors agree to publish.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Thong-asa, W., Jedsadavitayakol, S. & Jutarattananon, S. Benefits of betanin in rotenone-induced Parkinson mice. Metab Brain Dis 36, 2567–2577 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: