The therapeutic and protective effects of bee pollen against prenatal methylmercury induced neurotoxicity in rat pups
- 57 Downloads
The current study evaluated the protective and therapeutic potency of bee pollen in ameliorating the toxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg), by measuring certain biochemical parameters related to neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and glutamate excitotoxicity in the male neonate brain. Healthy, pregnant female rats (N = 40) were randomly divided into 5 groups, each comprising10 male neonates, as follows: (i) neonates delivered by control mothers; (ii) neonates delivered by MeHg-treated mothers who received 0.5 mg/kg BW/day MeHg via drinking water from gestational day 7 till postnatal day 7; (iii) neonates delivered by bee pollen treated mothers who received 200-mg/kg BW bee pollen from postnatal day 0 for 4 weeks; (iv) protective group of neonates delivered by MeHg and bee pollen-treated mothers, who continued to receive bee pollen until day 21 at the same dose, and (v) therapeutic group of neonates delivered by MeHg- treated mothers followed by bee pollen treatment, wherein they received 200-mg/kg BW bee pollen from postnatal day 0 for 4 weeks. Selected biochemical parameters in brain homogenates from each group were measured. MeHg-treated groups exhibited various signs of brain toxicity, such as a marked reduction in neurotransmitters (serotonin (5-HT), nor-adrenalin (NA), dopamine (DA)) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and elevated levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), caspase-3, and glutamate (Glu). Bee pollen effectively reduced the neurotoxic effects of MeHg. Minimal changes in all measured parameters were observed in MeHg-treated animals compared to the control group. Therefore, bee pollen may safely improve neurotransmitter defects, inflammation, apoptosis, and glutamate excitotoxicity.
KeywordsAutism Methylmercury Bee pollen Neurotransmitters Interferon gamma Caspase-3 And glutamate excitotoxicity
one-way analysis of variance
amyloid precursor protein
area under the curve
blood brain barrier
center nerves system
gamma aminobutyric acid
nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells
receiver operating characteristics curve
This work was financed by Researchers Supporting Project number (RSP-2019/17), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship, and/or publication of this article.
All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at the Faculty of King Saud University (KSU-SE-17-10).
- Agilan B, Rajendra Prasad N, Kanimozhi G, Karthikeyan R, Ganesan M, Mohana S, Velmurugan D, Ananthakrishnan D. Caffeic acid inhibits chronic UVB-induced cellular proliferation through JAK-STAT3 signaling in mouse skin. Photochem Photobiol 2016 May;92(3):467–474. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12588. Epub 2016 Apr 21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aldgini HMM, Al-Abbadi AA, Abu-Nameh ESM, Alghazeer Rabia O (2019) Determination of metals as bio indicators in some selected bee pollen samples from Jordan. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences In pressGoogle Scholar
- De Andrade Teles RB, Diniz TC, Costa Pinto TC, De Oliveira Júnior RG, Gama E Silva M, De Lavor ÉM, Fernandes AWC, De Oliveira AP, De Almeida Ribeiro FPR, Da Silva AAM, Cavalcante TCF, Quintans Júnior LJ, Da Silva Almeida JRG (2018) Flavonoids as therapeutic agents in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: a systematic review of preclinical evidences. Oxidative Med Cell Longev 7043213:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- El-Ansary S, Shaker GH, Rizk MZ (2013) Role of gut-brain Axis in the Aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders with reference to autism. Journal of Clinical Toxicology S6:005–013Google Scholar
- Foerster BR, Pomper MG, Callaghan BC, Petrou M, Edden RAE, Mohamed MA, Welsh RC, Carlos RC, Barker PB, Feldman EL (2013) An imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis revealed by use of 3-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. JAMA neurology 70:1009–1016CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Franco JL, Posser T, Missau F, Pizzolatti MG, Dos Santos ARS, Souza DO, Aschner M, Rocha JBT, Dafre AL, Farina M (2010) Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids derived from medicinal plants in preventing methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 30:272–278CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hogberg HT, Kinsner-Ovaskainen A, Hartung T, Coecke S, Bal-Price AK (2009) Gene expression as a sensitive endpoint to evaluate cell differentiation and maturation of the developing central nervous system in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) exposed to pesticides. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 235:268–286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kocot J, Kiełczykowska M, Luchowska-Kocot D, Kurzepa J, Musik I (2018) Antioxidant potential of Propolis, bee pollen, and Royal Jelly: possible medical application. Oxidative Med Cell Longev 2(2018):7074209Google Scholar
- Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, Yolton K, Baghurst P, Bellinger DC, Canfield RL, Dietrich KN, Bornschein R, Greene T (2005) Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect 113:894–899CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Llop S, Tran V, Ballester F, Barbone F, Sofianou-Katsoulis A, Sunyer J, Engstrom K, Alhamdow A, Love TM, Watson GE, Bustamante M, Murcia M, Iniguez C, Shamlayecf RV, Mariuz M, Horvat M, Tratnik JS, Mazej D, Van Wijngaarden E, Davidson PW, Myers GJ, Rand MD, Broberg K (2017) CYP3A genes and the association between prenatal methylmercury exposure and neurodevelopment. Environ Int 105:34–42CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nicholson DW, Ali A, Thornberry NA, Vaillancourt JP, Ding CK, Gallant M, Gareau Y, Griffin PR, Labelle M, Lazebnik YA, Munday NA, Sayyaparaju MR, Smulson ME, Yamin TT, Yu VL, Miller DK (1995) Identification and inhibition of the ICE/CED-3 protease necessary for mammalian apoptosis. Nature 376:37–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qiang-Nan Feng, Xin Liang, Sha Li, and Yan Zhang (2018) The ADAPTOR PROTEIN-3 complex mediates pollen tube growth by coordinating vacuolar targeting and organization. Plant Physiol 177:216–225Google Scholar
- Rebiai A (2013) Determination of Caffeic Acid and Gallic Acid in Algerian Bee Pollen by an HPLC Method. 1st Algerian Days on Natural Products, December, Bechar AlgeriaGoogle Scholar
- Rice D, Barone SJR (2000) Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models. Environ Health Perspect 108:S511–S533Google Scholar
- Yildiz O, Can Z, Saral O, Yuluğ E, Ozturk F, Aliyazicioğlu R, Canpolat S, Kolayli S (2013) Hepatoprotective potential of chestnut bee pollen on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damages in rats. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine:eCAM 2013:461478–461478CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar