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Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 867–879 | Cite as

Achyranthes aspera Attenuates epilepsy in experimental animals: possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism

  • Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry ViswanathaEmail author
  • Marikunte V. Venkataranganna
  • Nunna Bheema Lingeswara Prasad
  • Ashok Godavarthi
Original Article

Abstract

The present study was aimed to examine the possible anticonvulsant property of aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera using various experimental models of epilepsy in mice. Petroleum ether extract of aerial parts of A. aspera (PeAA), methanolic eAA (MeAA) and aqueous eAA (AeAA) was initially evaluated against six-hertz seizure model in mice, based on the outcomes the effective extract was further evaluated against maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) models in mice. In addition, the potent extract was evaluated against the PTZ model by co-administering with flumazenil (FMZ), and also evaluated for its effect on GABA levels in brain and NMDA-induced lethality in mice. Furthermore, the probable locomotor deficit-inducing property of the extract was evaluated by actophotometer test in mice. In results, only MeAA showed protection against six-hertz-induced seizures in mice, based on these outcomes only MeAA was evaluated in MES and PTZ models. Notably, the MeAA (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) has offered mild and dose dependent protection against MES and PTZ-induced seizures in mice. Alongside, the MeAA (400 mg/kg) showed a significant increase in GABA levels in the brain compared to control, and in line with these findings the anti-PTZ effect of MeAA (400 mg/kg, p.o.) was blocked when co-administered with flumazenil (5 mg/kg, i.p.). However, the MeAA has not shown significant protection against NMDA-induced mortality and also did not cause significant change in locomotor activity compared to before treatment. These findings suggest that MeAA possess mild anticonvulsant activity and the outcomes further confirmed the involvement of GABAergic mechanism behind the anticonvulsant activity of MeAA.

Keywords

Achyranthes aspera Anticonvulsant Epilepsy Herbal medicine Six-hertz seizures MES –induced seizures PTZ-induced seizures Gamma-amino butyric acid Diazepam 

Abbreviations

PeAA

Petroleum ether extract of Achyranthes aspera aerial parts

MeAA

Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera aerial parts

AeAA

Aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera aerial parts

MES

Maximal Electroshock

PTZ

Pentylenetetrazole

HLTE

Hind limb Tonic extensor

HLTF

Hind limb Tonic flexion

GABA

Gamma amino butyric acid

NMDA

N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid

LD

lethal dose

ED

Effective dose

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the technical help provided by Dr. Nandakumar K, Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Manipal college of Pharmaceutical sciences, Manipal.

The authors greatly acknowledge Ms.Radiant Research Services Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, Vitthartha Life Sciences, Bommasandra Industrial Area, Bangalore, and Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal for providing all the neccesary facilities and Technical help in completing the research work.

Authors Contribution

GLV, MVV, NBLP and AG have contributed equally for designing, conducting the study, data collection, analysis and preparation of manuscript, MVV and NBLP involved in critical analysis and interpretation of findings, MVV, NBLP, AG have proof read and approved the final version of manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare there are no conflicts of interest and they guarantee no further ethical conflict among the authors and the experimental methodology. Also, no formal funding from any agencies was used for this project.

Supplementary material

11011_2017_9981_MOESM1_ESM.docx (95 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 94 kb)
11011_2017_9981_MOESM2_ESM.docx (93 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 93 kb)
11011_2017_9981_MOESM3_ESM.docx (92 kb)
ESM 3 (DOCX 92 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marikunte V. Venkataranganna
    • 3
  • Nunna Bheema Lingeswara Prasad
    • 4
  • Ashok Godavarthi
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiant Research Services Pvt LtdPeenya Industrial AreaBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.BangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Connexios Life Sciences Pvt LtdBangaloreIndia
  4. 4.Oil Technological and Pharmaceutical Research Institute (OTPRI)JNT University AnantapurAnanthapuramuIndia

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