Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 753–763 | Cite as

Long term exposure to cell phone frequencies (900 and 1800 MHz) induces apoptosis, mitochondrial oxidative stress and TRPV1 channel activation in the hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats

  • Kemal Ertilav
  • Fuat Uslusoy
  • Serdar Ataizi
  • Mustafa Nazıroğlu
Original Article

Abstract

Mobile phone providers use electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with frequencies ranging from 900 to 1800 MHz. The increasing use of mobile phones has been accompanied by several potentially pathological consequences, such as neurological diseases related to hippocampal (HIPPON) and dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN). The TRPV1 channel is activated different stimuli, including CapN, high temperature and oxidative stress. We investigated the contribution TRPV1 to mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis in HIPPON and DRGN following long term exposure to 900 and 1800 MHz in a rat model. Twenty-four adult rats were equally divided into the following groups: (1) control, (2) 900 MHz, and (3) 1800 MHz exposure. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/ 5 days of the week during the one year. The 900 and 1800 MHz EMR exposure induced increases in TRPV1 currents, intracellular free calcium influx (Ca2+), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization (JC-1), apoptosis, and caspase 3 and 9 activities in the HIPPON and DRGN. These deleterious processes were further increased in the 1800 MHz experimental group compared to the 900 MHz exposure group. In conclusion, mitochondrial oxidative stress, programmed cell death and Ca2+ entry pathway through TRPV1 activation in the HIPPON and DRGN of rats were increased in the rat model following exposure to 900 and 1800 MHz cell frequencies. Our results suggest that exposure to 900 and 1800 MHz EMR may induce a dose-associated, TRPV1-mediated stress response.

Keywords

Apoptosis Dorsal root ganglion Hippocampus Mobile phone frequency Oxidative stress TRPV1 cation channel 

Abbreviations

[Ca2+]i

Intracellular free calcium ion

CapN

Capsaicin

CapZ

Capsazepine

DHR

Dihydrorhodamine

DRGN

Dorsal root ganglion neuron

EMR

Electromagnetic radiation

HIPPON

Hippocampal neuron

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SAR

Specific absorption rate

TRP

Transient receptor potential

TRPV1

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1

VGGC

Voltage gated calcium channel

W.C.

Whole cell

Notes

Acknowledgments

The abstract of the study was published in the Thermal Biology 2017 International Symposium, September 4, 2017, Kyoto, Japan. The authors wish to thank the technician Fatih Şahin (BSN Sağlık Analiz, ARGE, Danışmanlık, Sağlık ve Tarım Ltd., Isparta, Turkey) and Dr. Nady Braidy (School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Randwick Australia) for helping with the patch-clamp analyses and polishing English, respectively.

Author’s contribution

MN formulated the present hypothesis and was responsible for writing the report. KE, FU and SA were responsible for analyses of spectrofluorometer and plate reader.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosures

None of the authors have any to disclose. All authors approved the final manuscript.

Financial disclosure

There is no financial support for the current study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kemal Ertilav
    • 1
  • Fuat Uslusoy
    • 2
  • Serdar Ataizi
    • 3
  • Mustafa Nazıroğlu
    • 4
  1. 1.Departmant of Neurosurgery, Faculty of MedicineSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Faculty of MedicineSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  3. 3.Departmant of NeurosurgeryYunusemre General State HospitalEskişehirTurkey
  4. 4.Neuroscience Research CenterSuleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey

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