Ocimum basilicum improve chronic stress-induced neurodegenerative changes in mice hippocampus
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), one of the progressive neurodegenerative diseases might be associated with exposure to stress and altered living conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oils in improving the neurodegenerative-like changes induced in mice after exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Forty male Swiss albino mice divided into four groups (n = 10); the control, CUMS, CUMS + Fluoxetine, CUMS + OB were used. Behavioral tests, serum corticosterone level, hippocampus protein level of the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and brain-dreived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were determined after exposure to CUMS. Hippocampus was histopathologically examined. Data were analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) and P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. OB diminished the depression manifestation as well as impaired short term memory observed in the mice after exposure to the CUMS as evidenced by the forced swimming and elevated plus maze test. OB also up-regulated the serum corticosterone level, hippocampal protein level of the glucocorticoid receptor and the brain-derived neurotropic factor and reduced the neurodegenerative and atrophic changes induced in the hippocampus after exposure to CUMS. Essential oils of OB alleviated the memory impairment and hippocampal neurodegenerative changes induced by exposure to the chronic unpredictable stress indicating that it is the time to test its effectiveness on patients suffering from Alzheimer disease.
KeywordsSweet Basil Depression Alzheimer Corticosterone GR BDNF
The authors thank Yousef Abdullatif Jameel, Chair of Prophetic Medical Applications (YAJCPMA), Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, for his support to this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
- Bae D, Seol H, Yoon HG, Na JR, Oh K, Choi CY, Lee DW, Jun W, Youl Lee K, Lee J, Hwang K, Lee YH, Kim S (2012) Inhaled essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtuse ameliorates the impairments of cognitive function induced by injection of β-amyloid in rats. Pharm Biol 50(7):900–910CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bancroft JD, Gamble M (2008) Theory and practice of histological techniques, 6th edn. Churchill Livingstone, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Chen W, Mao L, Xing H, Xu L, Fu X, Huang L, Huang D, Pu Z, Li Q (2015) Lycopene attenuates Aβ1-42 secretion and its toxicity in human cell and Caenorhabditis elegans models of Alzheimer disease. Neurosci Lett. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2015.10.009
- Chung JK, Plitman E, Nakajima S, Chakravarty MM, Caravaggio F, Gerretsen P, Iwata Y, Graff-Guerrero A (2016) Cortical amyloid β Deposition and current depressive symptoms in Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 29(3):149–159Google Scholar
- Cvetković-Dožić D, Skender-Gazibara M, Dožić S (2001) Neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Arch Oncol 9(3):195–199Google Scholar
- Doro R, Lotan D, Versano Z, Benatav L, Franko M, Armoza S, Kately N, Rehavi M (2014) Escitalopram or novel herbal mixture treatments duringor following exposure to stress reduce anxiety like behavior through corticosterone and BDNF modifications. PLoS One 9(4):e91455. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091455 eCollection 2014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Grayer RJ, Bryan SE, Veitch NC, Goldstone FJ, Paton A, Wollenweber E (1996) External flavones in sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, and related taxa. Phytochemistry 43(5):1041–1047Google Scholar
- Khan IA, Abourashed EA (2010) Leung’s Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 455–465Google Scholar
- Kulkarni SK (2007) Hand book of experimental pharmacology, 3rd edn. Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, pp 36–38Google Scholar
- Makhlouf NA, El-Beshbishy RA, Abousetta A (2014) Ginkgo modulates noise-induced hippocampal damage in male albino rats: a light and electron microscopic study. Egypt J Hist 37(1):159–174. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.EHX.0000444078.17248.ab CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- de Paula JJ, Diniz BS, Bicalho MA, Albuquerque MR, Nicolato R, de Moraes EN, Romano-Silva MA, Malloy-Diniz LF (2015) Specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms as predictors of activities of daily living in older adults with heterogeneous cognitive backgrounds. Front Aging Neurosci 7:139CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Paxinos G, Watson C (1998) The Rat Hippocampus in Stereotaxic Coordinates. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Popp J, Wolfsgruber S, Heuser I, Peters O, Hüll M, Schröder J, Möller HJ, Lewczuk P, Schneider A, Jahn H, Luckhaus C, Perneczky R, Frölich L, Wagner M, Maier W, Wiltfang J, Kornhuber J, Jessen F (2015) Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol and clinical disease progression in MCI and dementia of Alzheimer's type. Neurobiol Aging 36(2):601–607CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoshiyama K, Arita H, Suzuki J (2015) The effect of aroma hand massage therapy for people with dementia. J Altern Complement Med 21(12):759–765Google Scholar