Prevalence and trend of isolated and complicated congenital hydrocephalus and preventive effect of folic acid in northern China, 2005–2015
- 85 Downloads
Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) was a major birth defect of the central nervous system besides neural tube defects (NTDs). Few studies have focused on both the prevalence and trend of isolated and complicated CH in China. Data were drawn from a population-based birth defects surveillance program in five rural counties in northern China from 2005 to 2015. All livebirths and pregnancy terminations at any gestational age affected with CH were recorded. The prevalence and trend of isolated and complicated CH were examined. During the 11-year period, a total of 176,223 births and 357 CH cases were recorded, resulting in a prevalence rate of 20.3 CH cases per 10,000 births. Of the CH cases, 146 were isolated CH, resulting in a prevalence rate of 8.3 per 10,000 births. The pre-perinatal prevalence (<28 gestational weeks) was higher than the perinatal prevalence for both isolated and total CH. The prevalence rates of total and isolated CH showed a similar downward trend during the 11–year period. This downward trend was statistically significant after 2009 (p < 0.05), when a massive folic acid supplementation program was introduced. Although it decreased over time, the prevalence of CH remains high in this population which has a high prevalence of neural tube defects.
KeywordsCongenital hydrocephalus High prevalence Neural tube defects Folic acid supplementation
This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program, Ministry of Science and Technology, P.R. China (grant No. 2016YFC1000500) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Numbers: 81202265).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
- Jeng S, Gupta N, Wrensch M, Zhao S, Wu YW (2011) Prevalence of congenital hydrocephalus in California, 1991-2000. Pediatr Neurol 45:67–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2011.03.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jin L, Jin L, Yu J, Xu Y, Liu H, Ren A (2017) Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects and the Impact of Prenatal Diagnosis in Three Districts of Beijing, China. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12354
- Lim H, Agopian AJ, Whitehead LW, Beasley CW, Langlois PH, Emery RJ, Waller DK (2015) Maternal occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and major structural birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 103:243–254. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdra.23340 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ma R, Wang L (2017) Plasma folate levels and associated factors in women planning to become pregnant in a population with high prevalence of neural tube defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1040
- Ministry of Health C (2012) China birth defects prevention report (2012). Available from: http://www.gov.cn/gzdt/2012-09/12/content_2223371.htm. Accessed 4 Dec 2017
- Walsh S, Donnan J, Morrissey A, Sikora L, Bowen S, Collins K, MacDonald D (2016) A systematic review of the risks factors associated with the onset and natural progression of hydrocephalus. Neurotoxicology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2016.03.012
- Woodward JC, Newberne PM (1967) The pathogenesis of hydrocephalus in newborn rats deficient in vitamin B12. J Embryol Exp Morpholog 17:177–187Google Scholar
- Yang W, Zeng L, Cheng Y, Chen Z, Wang X, Li X, Yan H (2012) The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China. PLoS One 7:e53429. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053429 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar