Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 681–691 | Cite as

Trigonelline insulates against oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and restores BDNF levels in lipopolysaccharide induced cognitive impairment in adult mice

  • Amrita A. Chowdhury
  • Nitin B. Gawali
  • Renuka Munshi
  • Archana R. Juvekar
Original Article


Neuroinflammation is said to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Trigonelline (TRG) is a naturally occurring alkaloid, commonly isolated from fenugreek and coffee beans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRG exerts neuroprotective action against LPS mediated cognitive impairment. Mice pretreated with TRG (50 and 100 mg/kg po) were administered with LPS (250 μg/kg ip) for 7 days. Memory was assessed in the Morris water maze (MWM) and Y maze. LPS administration caused poor memory retention in MWM and Y maze paradigms, and resulted in marked oxidative stress as evidenced by decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and increased lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus and cortex. Cholinergic involvement during neuroinflammation was evaluated by measuring levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. TRG treatment at both the doses reversed LPS induced behavioral and memory disturbances, significantly decreased the oxidative stress and AChE levels in both the hippocampus and cortex. LPS administration also elevated the tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin −6 (IL-6) levels, whereas brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were significantly depleted. TRG pretreatment led to decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels and caused a significant upregulation of BDNF levels. In conclusion, present study highlights the promising neuroprotective role of TRG against LPS mediated cognitive impairment which could be attributed to reduced oxidative stress, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and restoration of BDNF levels.


Brain derived neurotrophic factor Oxidative stress Trigonelline Lipopolysaccharide Neuroinflammation 



This study has been funded by grants from University Grants Commission (UGC), India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amrita A. Chowdhury
    • 1
  • Nitin B. Gawali
    • 1
  • Renuka Munshi
    • 2
  • Archana R. Juvekar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology (DPST)Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT)MumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Pharmacology, B. Y. L. Nair Charitable Hospital and Topiwala National Medical CollegeMumbaiIndia

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