Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 1459–1469 | Cite as

Effects of repeated restraint stress and WiFi signal exposure on behavior and oxidative stress in rats

  • Haifa Othman
  • Mohamed Ammari
  • Mohsen Sakly
  • Hafedh Abdelmelek
Original Article
  • 321 Downloads

Abstract

Today, due to technology development and aversive events of daily life, Human exposure to both radiofrequency and stress is unavoidable. This study investigated the co-exposure to repeated restraint stress and WiFi signal on cognitive function and oxidative stress in brain of male rats. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, WiFi-exposed, restrained and both WiFi-exposed and restrained groups. Each of WiFi exposure and restraint stress occurred 2 h (h)/day during 20 days. Subsequently, various tests were carried out for each group, such as anxiety in elevated plus maze, spatial learning abilities in the water maze, cerebral oxidative stress response and cholinesterase activity in brain and serum. Results showed that WiFi exposure and restraint stress, alone and especially if combined, induced an anxiety-like behavior without impairing spatial learning and memory abilities in rats. At cerebral level, we found an oxidative stress response triggered by WiFi and restraint, per se and especially when combined as well as WiFi-induced increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Our results reveal that there is an impact of WiFi signal and restraint stress on the brain and cognitive processes especially in elevated plus maze task. In contrast, there are no synergistic effects between WiFi signal and restraint stress on the brain.

Keywords

WiFi signal Restraint stress Cognitive function Oxidative stress Rat 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

analysis of variance

AP

access point

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

CA

Cornu Ammonis

CAT

catalase

CNS

central nervous system

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DTNB

5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)

E

east

GHz

gigahertz

h

hour

Hz

hertz

K+

Potassium ion

MDA

malondialdehyde level

MHz

megahertz

mM

Millimolar

mW

milliwatt

N

north

Na+

Sodium ion

NCAM

neural cell adhesion molecule

nm

nanometre

pSAPs

protected stretched attend postures

RF

radiofrequency

ROS

reactive oxygen species

rpm

revolution per minute

SAR

specific absorption rate

S

south

S.E.M

standard error of the mean

-SH

Sulfydryl

SOD

superoxide dismutase

W

west

WiFi

Wireless Fidelity

WPA

Wi-Fi Protected Access

μL

microlitre

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haifa Othman
    • 1
  • Mohamed Ammari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohsen Sakly
    • 1
  • Hafedh Abdelmelek
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Laboratory of Integrative PhysiologyUniversity of CarthageJarzounaTunisia
  2. 2.Higher Institute of Applied Biological Sciences of TunisUniversity of Tunis El ManarTunisTunisia

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