Metabolic Brain Disease

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 115–127 | Cite as

Bacopa monniera ameliorates cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration induced by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin in rat: behavioral, biochemical, immunohistochemical and histopathological evidences

  • M. Badruzzaman KhanEmail author
  • Muzamil Ahmad
  • Saif Ahmad
  • Tauheed Ishrat
  • Kumar Vaibhav
  • Gulrana Khuwaja
  • Fakhrul IslamEmail author
Research Article


The standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) is a complex mixture of ingredients with a uniquely wide spectrum of neuropharmacological influences upon the central nervous system including enhanced learning and memory with known antioxidant potential and protection of the brain from oxidative damage. The present study demonstrates the therapeutic efficacy of BM on cognitive impairment and oxidative damage, induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rat models. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with BM at a selected dose (30 mg/Kg) given orally for 2 weeks and then were injected bilaterally with ICV-STZ (3 mg/Kg), while sham operated rats were received the same volume of vehicle. Behavioral parameters were subsequently monitored 2 weeks after the surgery using the Morris water maze (MWM) navigation task then were sacrificed for biochemical, immunohistochemical (Cu/Zn-SOD) and histopathological assays. ICV-STZ-infused rats showed significant loss in learning and memory ability, which were significantly improved by BM supplementation. A significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species and a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus were observed in ICV-STZ rats. Moreover, decrease in Cu/Zn-SOD expression positive cells were observed in the hippocampus of ICV-STZ rats. BM supplementation significantly ameliorated all alterations induced by ICV-STZ in rats. The data suggest that ICV-STZ might cause its neurotoxic effects via the production of free radicals. Our study demonstrates that BM is a powerful antioxidant which prevents cognitive impairment, oxidative damage, and morphological changes in the ICV-STZ-infused rats. Thus, BM may have therapeutic value for the treatment of cognitive impairment.


Bacopa monniera Streptozotocin Oxidative damage Cognitive impairment Morris water maze Antioxidant 



We are grateful to the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH), ministry of health and family welfare, Government of India, for financial assistance. Authors are grateful to Mr. Dharamvir and the late Mr. Anil Kumar for assistance and cooperation and positively acknowledge Ms. Laura Lemley (Medical College of Georgia), for her help in the language preparation of the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

We have no conflict of interest and certify hereby that this work has never been published.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Badruzzaman Khan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Muzamil Ahmad
    • 1
    • 3
  • Saif Ahmad
    • 1
    • 4
  • Tauheed Ishrat
    • 1
    • 5
  • Kumar Vaibhav
    • 1
    • 6
  • Gulrana Khuwaja
    • 1
    • 7
  • Fakhrul Islam
    • 1
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology & ToxicologyJamia Hamdard (Hamdard University)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyGeorgia Regents UniversityAugustaUSA
  3. 3.Pharmacology DivisionIndian Institute of Integrative Medicine (IIIM)JammuIndia
  4. 4.Department of Biological Science, Rabigh College of Science and ArtsKing Abdul Aziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Clinical and Administrative PharmacyUniversity of GeorgiaAugustaUSA
  6. 6.Department of Medical Laboratory Imaging & Radiologic SciencesGeorgia Regents UniversityAugustaUSA
  7. 7.Neuroscience and Toxicology Unit, Faculty of PharmacyJazan UniversityJazanKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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