In vivo studies of brain metabolism in animal models of Hepatic Encephalopathy using 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
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Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common and severe neuropsychiatric complication present in acute and chronic liver disease. The unique advantages of high field 1H MRS provide a method for assessing pathogenic mechanism, diagnosis and monitoring of HE, as well as for treatment assessment or recovery after liver transplantation, in a reproducible and reliable non-invasive way. The purpose of the present review is to present some new features of in vivo proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS) at high magnetic fields combined with some basic requirements for reliable metabolic profiling. Finally, in vivo applications of 1H MRS in different HE animal models are presented.
KeywordsIn vivo short echo time 1H MRS Quantification of neurochemical profile Hepatic encephalopathy Chronic liver disease Acute liver failure Hyperammonemia
Supported by Centre d’Imagerie BioMédicale (CIBM) of the UNIL, UNIGE, HUG, CHUV, EPFL, the Leenaards and Jeantet Foundations. The author thanks Dr O. Braissant (Service of Biomedicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland) and Dr V. McLin (Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Child and Adolescent, University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland) the main collaborators on the project briefly presented in the present review and Drs V. Mlynarik and B. Lanz (Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging (LIFMET), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland) for reviewing the manuscript.
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