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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Anhuienoside C inhibits human ovarian cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis, suppression of cell migration and invasion, and targeting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway

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This article was retracted on 19 August 2023

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Abstract

The present study was initiated to examine the anticancer effects of Anhuienoside C (AC) against ovarian cancer and postulates the possible molecular mechanism of its action. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was implemented for determination of the effects of AC on cell viability of the ovarian cancer OVACAR-3 cell line. To study cellular morphology, phase contrast microscopy was performed. Apoptosis was examined via acridine orange/ethidium bromide used staining assays. Flow cytometry was used to check the different phases of the cell cycle. Cell migration and invasion assays were performed via transwell chamber assay. The effects of AC on expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein in ovarian cell were assessed using western blotting assay. The results indicated that the cell proliferation rate lowered in AC-treated OVACAR-3 cells as compared to the untreated controls in a dose-dependent manner. Cell morphology changed substantially by the exposure to AC and remained dose dependent. These morphological changes were indicative of apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis analysis showed dose-dependent increase of apoptosis. The cell migration and invasion of OVACAR-3 cells was reduced to a minimum by AC in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, western blotting assay showed blocking of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway with increasing AC doses. Taking all together, AC is a potential ovarian cancer inhibitor. It induces its anti-ovarian cancer effects via induction of apoptosis, delaying cell migration and invasion, and blocking PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

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Acknowledgements

All the authors of presented report thankful to The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, China for providing necessary facility to conduct the work.

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Correspondence to Youguo Chen.

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All the experimental protocols were approved by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Yancheng No.1 People Hospital, China (IACUC/YPH/12/2020).

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This article has been retracted. Please see the retraction notice for more detail: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-023-04829-6

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Zhu, Y., Yang, L. & Chen, Y. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Anhuienoside C inhibits human ovarian cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis, suppression of cell migration and invasion, and targeting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biochem 477, 1887–1892 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-022-04406-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-022-04406-3

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