Inside(sight) of tiny communicator: exosome biogenesis, secretion, and uptake

Abstract

Discovered in the late 1980s as an extracellular vesicle of endosomal origin secreted from reticulocytes, exosomes recently gained scientific attention due to its role in intercellular communication. Exosomes have now been identified to carry cell-specific cargo of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and other biologically active molecules. Exosomes can be selectively taken up by neighboring or distant cells, which has shown to result in structural and functional responses in the recipient cells. Recent advances indicate the regulation of exosomes at various steps, including their biogenesis, selection of their cargo, as well as cell-specific uptake. This review will shed light on the differences between the type of extracellular vesicles. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of exosome biogenesis, secretion, and uptake.

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Acknowledgements

This work received support from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC; Operating grant to V.B.P.), Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR; Operating grant to V.B.P.), and Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, Cumming School of Medicine (Start-up operating Fund to V.B.P.; Postdoctoral scholarship to A.S.J.).

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Jadli, A.S., Ballasy, N., Edalat, P. et al. Inside(sight) of tiny communicator: exosome biogenesis, secretion, and uptake. Mol Cell Biochem 467, 77–94 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-03703-z

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Keywords

  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Exosomes
  • Intercellular communication
  • Biogenesis
  • Secretion