Exosomes: cell-created drug delivery systems

Abstract

Exosomes are 40- to 100- nm cell-originated vesicles derived from endocytic compartments that are released into almost all biological fluids. Exosomes are cell-created vesicles that inherit identical phospholipid membrane, explaining a wide application of electroporation as a technique for exosomes loading with exogenous cargoes. Another way of loading exosomes with therapeutic cargo is to overexpress a certain gene in exosome-donor cells or treat cell line with drug of interest that later will be gently enveloped into vesicles based on the process of EV biogenesis. Similarly, to visualize siRNA loading into exosomes as well as the exosomal product delivery to recipient cells, we have conducted an experiment where chemical-based exosome transfection was used. In this review, we discuss different ways of extracellular vesicle loading with exogenous cargoes and their advantages/limitations as well as novel alternative techniques of substance incorporation into nanoparticles.

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Abbreviations

ncRNAs:

Noncoding ribonucleic acid

mRNA:

Messenger RNAs

DNA:

Deoxyribonucleic acids

MVBs:

Multivesicular bodies

miRNAs:

MicroRNAs

siRNA:

Small (or short) interfering RNA

RVG:

Rabies viral glycoprotein

EVs:

Extracellular vesicles

MV:

Microvesicles

CML:

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

MAPK1:

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1

MAEC:

Mouse-aortic endothelial cell

HuR:

Human antigen R

EXPLORs:

Exosomes for protein loading via optically reversible protein–protein interactions

CRY2:

Cryptochrome 2

CIB1:

CRY-interacting basic-helix-loop-helix1

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Institute of Health Grants: HL74185, HL139047 and AR71789.

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Correspondence to Nevena Jeremic.

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Familtseva, A., Jeremic, N. & Tyagi, S.C. Exosomes: cell-created drug delivery systems. Mol Cell Biochem 459, 1–6 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-019-03545-4

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Keywords

  • Exosomes
  • Endothelial cells
  • Electroporation