Exosomes are 40- to 100- nm cell-originated vesicles derived from endocytic compartments that are released into almost all biological fluids. Exosomes are cell-created vesicles that inherit identical phospholipid membrane, explaining a wide application of electroporation as a technique for exosomes loading with exogenous cargoes. Another way of loading exosomes with therapeutic cargo is to overexpress a certain gene in exosome-donor cells or treat cell line with drug of interest that later will be gently enveloped into vesicles based on the process of EV biogenesis. Similarly, to visualize siRNA loading into exosomes as well as the exosomal product delivery to recipient cells, we have conducted an experiment where chemical-based exosome transfection was used. In this review, we discuss different ways of extracellular vesicle loading with exogenous cargoes and their advantages/limitations as well as novel alternative techniques of substance incorporation into nanoparticles.
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Noncoding ribonucleic acid
Small (or short) interfering RNA
Rabies viral glycoprotein
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Mouse-aortic endothelial cell
Human antigen R
Exosomes for protein loading via optically reversible protein–protein interactions
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This work was supported by National Institute of Health Grants: HL74185, HL139047 and AR71789.
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Familtseva, A., Jeremic, N. & Tyagi, S.C. Exosomes: cell-created drug delivery systems. Mol Cell Biochem 459, 1–6 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-019-03545-4
- Endothelial cells