Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 444, Issue 1–2, pp 125–141 | Cite as

Endocannabinoid hydrolases in avian HD11 macrophages identified by chemoproteomics: inactivation by small-molecule inhibitors and pathogen-induced downregulation of their activity

  • Jung Hwa Lee
  • Xiang Hou
  • Evangel Kummari
  • Abdolsamad Borazjani
  • Mariola J. Edelmann
  • Matthew K. RossEmail author


The endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous arachidonoyl-containing lipid mediators with important roles in host defense. Macrophages are first-line defenders of the innate immune system and biosynthesize large amounts of eCBs when activated. The cellular levels of eCBs are controlled by the activities of their biosynthetic enzymes and catabolic enzymes, which include members of the serine hydrolase (SH) superfamily. The physiologic activity of SHs can be assessed in a class-specific way using chemoproteomic activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) methods. Here, we have examined avian (chicken) HD11 macrophages, a widely used cell line in host–pathogen research, using gel-based ABPP and ABPP-multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) to profile the changes in SH activities under baseline, chemical-inhibitor-treated, and pathogen-challenged conditions. We identified α/β-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the principal SHs responsible for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) hydrolysis, thereby regulating the concentration of this lipid in HD11 cells. We further discovered that infection of HD11 macrophages by Salmonella Typhimurium caused the activities of these 2AG hydrolases to be downregulated in the host cells. ABHD6 and FAAH were potently inhibited by a variety of small-molecule inhibitors in intact live cells, and thus these compounds might be useful host-directed adjuvants to combat antimicrobial resistance in agriculture. 2AG was further shown to augment the phagocytic function of HD11 macrophages, which suggests that pathogen-induced downregulation of enzymes controlling 2AG hydrolytic activity might be a physiological mechanism to increase 2AG levels, thus enhancing phagocytosis. Together these results define ABHD6 and FAAH as 2AG hydrolases in avian macrophages that can be inactivated pharmacologically and decreased in activity during Salmonella Typhimurium infection.


Macrophage Serine hydrolases Activity-based protein profiling Salmonella Typhimurium Host defense 



This work was supported by the Mississippi Center for Food Safety and Post-harvest Technology Grant Program (USDA-ARS; SCA Food Safety 500-00031-001-00D) and by indirect funds from the National Institutes of Health 1R15ES015348-02.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11010_2017_3237_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 1059 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Food SafetyJiangsu Academy of Agricultural SciencesNanjingChina
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, College of Agricultural and Life SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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