Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 442, Issue 1–2, pp 187–201 | Cite as

Comprehensive analysis of phospholipids in the brain, heart, kidney, and liver: brain phospholipids are least enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids

  • Jaewoo Choi
  • Tai Yin
  • Koichiro Shinozaki
  • Joshua W. Lampe
  • Jan F. Stevens
  • Lance B. Becker
  • Junhwan Kim
Article

Abstract

It is commonly accepted that brain phospholipids are highly enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, the evidence for this remains unclear. We used HPLC–MS to analyze the content and composition of phospholipids in rat brain and compared it to the heart, kidney, and liver. Phospholipids typically contain one PUFA, such as 18:2, 20:4, or 22:6, and one saturated fatty acid, such as 16:0 or 18:0. However, we found that brain phospholipids containing monounsaturated fatty acids in the place of PUFAs are highly elevated compared to phospholipids in the heart, kidney, and liver. The relative content of phospholipid containing PUFAs is ~ 60% in the brain, whereas it is over 90% in other tissues. The most abundant species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is PC(16:0/18:1) in the brain, whereas PC(18:0/20:4) and PC(16:0/20:4) are predominated in other tissues. Moreover, several major species of plasmanyl and plasmenyl phosphatidylethanolamine are found to contain monounsaturated fatty acid in the brain only. Overall, our data clearly show that brain phospholipids are the least enriched with PUFAs of the four major organs, challenging the common belief that the brain is highly enriched with PUFAs.

Keywords

HPLC–MS Brain lipids Monounsaturated fatty acid Cardiolipin 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge Dr. Edmund Miller for his comments and helpful advice in writing the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [RO1HL067630 and S10RR027878].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice where the studies were conducted.

Supplementary material

11010_2017_3203_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (469 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 468 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Linus Pauling InstituteOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Emergency MedicineFeinstein Institute for Medical Research, Northwell Health SystemManhassetUSA
  4. 4.Department of Molecular MedicineZucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/NorthwellHempsteadUSA
  5. 5.Department of Emergency MedicineZucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/NorthwellHempsteadUSA

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