Insulin resistance is associated with endothelial dysfunction and ensuing cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. ENPP1 is a key modulator of insulin signaling and its polymorphism, K121Q, increases the potency to competitively inhibit insulin receptor binding. We investigated the association of ENPP1 121Q variant with coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with and without T2DM in South Indian population. Our study was conducted in 913 subjects: 198 patients with CAD, 284 patients in whom T2DM and CAD co-exists, 160 patients with T2DM and no CAD history, and 271 healthy volunteers. Genotyping was performed using PCR–RFLP and PCR-DNA sequencing. Genotype frequency of ENPP1 121Q was higher in disease groups compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.05). T2DM patients who carried polymorphic AC/CC genotypes were at 12.8-fold enhanced risk to CAD (95% CI 4.97–37.18, p < 0.01). Moreover we observed that 121Q, both in heterozygous and homozygous polymorphic states, was a risk factor for CAD without diabetes (OR 4.15, p < 0.01). 121Q variant was associated with T2DM patients with no CAD history too, but the risk was statistically insignificant after multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR 2.32, p > 0.05). We conclude that ENPP1 121Q variant is associated with increased risk for CAD in patients with T2DM in South Indian population. We also report that 121Q variant of ENPP1 was an independent risk factor for CAD irrespective of diabetic milieu. Factors which enhance insulin resistance increase the risk for onset and progression of coronary atherosclerosis irrespective of a diabetic background.
Coronary artery disease Type 2 diabetes mellitus Prevalence Polymorphism ENPP1 South India
Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism
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We gratefully acknowledge Professor M Radhakrishna Pillai, Director, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram for providing funding and facilities for conducting this study. We also thank Dr. N S Pratapchandran and Dr. K R Santosh for providing patient samples. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Sumi S thankfully acknowledge DST WOS-A (SR/WOS-A/LS-1017/2014(G)) for research fellowship.
SS, SR, and CCK conceived and designed the experiments, MMP, SS, and SR performed the experiments, VRK and ATN performed statistical analysis of data, VRK, AM, CCK provided reagents, materials, analysis tools, SS and SR prepared manuscript, AM and CCK critical review of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and publication of this research article.
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