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Alterations of biochemical marker levels and myonuclear numbers in rat skeletal muscle after ischemia–reperfusion


Prolonged ischemia–reperfusion results in various damages in skeletal muscle. Following reperfusion, although the damaged muscles undergo regeneration, the precise process and mechanism of regeneration have not yet been fully understood. Here, we show the altered levels of plasma biochemical markers of muscle damage, and the change in myonuclear numbers in adult rat skeletal muscle by ischemia–reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral hindlimb ischemia by clamping the anterior tibial artery for 2 h before reperfusion. Both plasma creatine kinase activity and C-reactive protein levels in plasma were increased significantly at 0.5 h of reperfusion and returned to the control level at 24 h. The transverse sectional area of muscle belly of the anterior tibial muscles in ischemic side was significantly decreased by 20 % compared with those in sham-ischemic (control) side at 2 days, and returned to the control level at 5 days of reperfusion. Moreover, the number of interstitial nuclei in the ischemic side were significantly increased at 5–14 days and returned to the control level at 21 days of reperfusion. Central nuclei that are specifically observed in regenerating muscle, appeared at 5 days, reached a peak at 14 days, and disappeared at 28 days of reperfusion. Furthermore, MyoD, a regulatory factor for myogenesis, showed a transient expression at 5 days of reperfusion. These results indicate that, although the size of muscle seems to be recovered by 5 days of reperfusion, the most active muscle regeneration occurs much later, as shown by the increase in central nuclei.

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We are thankful to other members of our laboratory for helpful discussions and critical comments on the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Noriaki Shimokawa.

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Itoh, M., Shimokawa, N., Tajika, Y. et al. Alterations of biochemical marker levels and myonuclear numbers in rat skeletal muscle after ischemia–reperfusion. Mol Cell Biochem 373, 11–18 (2013).

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  • Ischemia–reperfusion
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Regeneration
  • CK
  • CRP
  • Myonucleus
  • MyoD