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External Qi of Yan Xin Qigong induces cell death and gene expression alterations promoting apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation, migration and glucose metabolism in small-cell lung cancer cells

Abstract

Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant carcinoma with poor long-term survival. Effective treatment remains highly demanded. In the present study, we demonstrated that External Qi of Yan Xin Qigong (YXQ-EQ) exerted potent cytotoxic effect towards SCLC cell line NCI-H82 via induction of apoptosis. Global gene expression profiling identified 39 genes whose expression was altered by YXQ-EQ in NCI-82 cells. Among them, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time qPCR analyses confirmed that the gene expression levels of apoptotic proteins death-associated protein kinase 2 and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector b were upregulated, whereas that of oncoproteins DEK and MYCL1, cell migration-promoting proteins CD24 and integrin-alpha 9, and glycolytic enzyme aldolase A were downregulated. These findings suggest that YXQ-EQ may exert anticancer effect through modulating gene expression in a way that facilitates cancer cell apoptosis while represses proliferation, metastasis, and glucose metabolism.

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Abbreviations

SCLC:

Small-cell lung cancer

TCM:

Traditional Chinese medicine

YXQ:

Yan Xin Qigong

YXQ-EQ:

External Qi of Yan Xin Qigong

FITC:

Fluorescein isothiocyanate

PI:

Propidium iodide

ITGA9:

Integrin alpha 9

VCAM1:

Vascular-cell-adhesion molecule 1

GRKs:

G-protein-coupled receptor kinases

MYCL1 (or L-Myc):

Lung myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog 1

DAPK2:

Death-associated protein kinase 2

CIDE-B:

Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector b

CAR:

Cancer-associated retinopathy

RCVRN:

Recoverin

ALDOA:

Aldolase A

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Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Yan Xin Foundation and Grants P20 RR16478-04, P20 RR020143, P20 RR15577, 01700172 from NIH, and Grant HR04-110F from OCAST.

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Correspondence to Dan Hu.

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Yan, X., Li, F., Dozmorov, I. et al. External Qi of Yan Xin Qigong induces cell death and gene expression alterations promoting apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation, migration and glucose metabolism in small-cell lung cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochem 363, 245–255 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-011-1176-8

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Keywords

  • Small-cell lung cancer
  • Gene expression
  • Cell death
  • Anti-cancer effect