Advertisement

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 299, Issue 1–2, pp 93–98 | Cite as

Decreased bodyweight without rebound and regulated lipoprotein metabolism by gymnemate in genetic multifactor syndrome animal

  • Hong LuoEmail author
  • Akiko Kashiwagi
  • Toshiyuki Shibahara
  • Kazuo Yamada
Article

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this work was to find obesity control method without rebound. In our previous studies, gymnemate extracted from Gymnema sylvestre, inhibited oleic acid absorption. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic multifactor syndrome model, exhibits progressive overweight, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. The effect of gymnemate on obesity in OLETF was investigated. Methods: Three groups were divided (n = 4–8): (1) OLETF-gymnemate, gymnema water extract (containing gymnemate) diet (62.5 g/kg) and water (2.5 g/kg) were supplied 2 weeks from 26–28 weeks, following it general diet and water were fed 3 weeks to observe if it rebound, (2) OLETF-control and (3) the counterpart Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats as normal-control. Results: With gymnemate treatment, the food and water intake were decreased about 1/3 and 2/3, along with body weight reduced 57.2± 6.4 and 75.5± 6.3 g during 1 and 2 weeks respectively. In the end of experiment (3 weeks after gymnemate withdrawal), the body weight was decreased to no significant difference with normal-control. The total cholesterol was decreased about 1/3, moreover LDL+VLDL (low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol decreased about 1/2. The proportion of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol to the total cholesterol was increased. The serum triglyceride was decreased to the 1/4 of OLETF control. The level of serum cholesterol and triglyceride was no significant difference in gymnemate group with normal group. Conclusion: Supplementation with gymnemate promotled weight loss by its ability to reduce hyperlipidemia, which was no withdrawal rebound: an important discovery. Supplementation with gymnemate is a novel therapeutic tool for weight management, especially in multifactor syndrome.

Keywords

dyslipidaemia HDL herb treatment LDL multifactor syndrome obesity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ozsahin AK, Gokcel A, Sezgin N, Akbaba M, Guvener N, Ozisik L, Karademir BM.: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a Turkish adult population. Diabetes Nutr Metab 17: 230–234, 2004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Daskalopoulou SS, Mikhailidis DP, Elisaf M: Prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Angiology 55: 589–612, 2004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hexeberg S, Retterstol K: Hypertriglyceridemia – diagnostics, risk and treatment. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 124: 2746–9, 2004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moon YS, Kashyap ML: Pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetic dyslipidemia. Pharmacotherapy 24: 1692–713, 2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luo H, Imoto T, Hiji Y: Inhibitory effect of voglibose and gymnemic acid on maltose absorption in vivo. World J Gastroenterol 7: 270–274, 2001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Luo H, Wang LF, Imoto T, Hiji Y: Inhibitory effect and mechanism of acarbose combined with gymnemic acid on maltose absorption in rat intestine. World J Gastroenterol 7: 9–15, 2001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang LF, Luo H, Miyoshi M, Imoto T, Hiji Y, Sasaki T: Inhibitory effect of gymnemic acid on intestinal absorption of oleic acid in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 76: 1017–1023, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Timar O, Sestier F, Levy E: Metabolic syndrome X: A review. Can J Cardiol. 16: 779–789, 2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Jonghe BC, Hajnal A, Covasa M.: Increased oral and decreased intestinal sensitivity to sucrose in obese, prediabetic CCK-A receptor-deficient OLETF rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288: R292–R300, 2005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moran TH: Cholecystokinin and satiety: Current perspectives. Nutrition. 16: 858–865, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bi S, Ladenheim EE, Schwartz GJ, Moran TH: A role for NPY overexpression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus in hyperphagia and obesity of OLETF rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281: R254–R260, 2001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K Kawano, T Hirashima, S Mori, Y Saitoh, M Kurosumi and T Natori: Spontaneous long-term hyperglycemic rat with diabetic complications. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) strain. Diabetes 41: 1422–1428, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yoshida Y, Ohyanagi M, Iwasaki T: Chronological changes of alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vascular constriction in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty rats. Hypertens Res: 26: 559–567, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yagi K, Kim S, Wanibuchi H, Yamashita T, Yamamura Y, Iwao H: Characteristics of diabetes, blood pressure, and cardiac and renal complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. Hypertension 29: 728–735, 1997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luo H: Possible participation of NO and EDHF in the relaxation of rat intestinal circular muscle induced by Gymnema water extracts containing gymnemic acids. Yonago Igaku Zasshi 50: 22–31, 1999Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fushiki T, Kojima A, Imoto T, Inoue K, Sugimoto E: An extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves and purified gymnemic acid inhibits glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory peptide secretion in rats. J Nutr 122: 2367–2373, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Persaud SJ, Al-Majed H, Raman A, Jones PM: Gymnema sylvestre stimulates insulin release in vitro by increased membrane permeability. J Endocrinol 163: 207–212, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yumiko Nakamura, Yukari Tsumura, Yasuhide Tonogai and Tadashi Shibata: Fecal steroid excretion is increased in rats by oral administration of gymnemic acids contained in Gymnema sylvestre leaves. Journal of Nutrition 129: 1214–1222, 1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Terasawa H, Miyoshi M and Toshiaki Imoto T: Effects of long-term administration of gymnema sylvestre watery-extract on variations of body weight, plasma glucose, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and insulin in wistar fatty rats. Yonago Acta Medica 37: 117–127, 1994Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Preuss HG, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Rao CV, Dey DK, Satyanarayana S: Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss. Diabetes Obes Metab 6: 171–180, 2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shigematsu N, Asano R, Shimosaka M, Okazaki M: Effect of administration with the extract of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br leaves on lipid metabolism in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 24: 713–717, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xie JT, Wang A, Mehendale S, Wu J, Aung HH, Dey L, Qiu S, Yuan CS: Anti-diabetic effects of Gymnema yunnanense extract. Pharmacol Res 47(4): 323–329, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stunkard AJ: Current views on obesity. Am J Med 100: 230–236, 1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jequier E. Pathways to obesity: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 260: S12–S17, 2002Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roberts SB, McCrory MA, Saltzman E: The influence of dietary composition on energy intake and body weight. J Am Coll Nutr 2002; 21: 140S–145S, 2002Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Popkin BM, Paeratakul S, Zhai F, Keyou G: A review of dietary and environmental correlates of obesity with emphasis on developing countries. Obes Res 3: 145S–153S, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Campbell I. The obesity epidemic: can we turn the tide?. Heart 89: 35–37, 2003Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Morley JE: Neuropeptide regulation of appetite and weight. Endocr Rev 8: 256–287, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sobal J, Stunkard AJ: Socioeconomic status and obesity: A review of the literature. Psychol Bull 105: 260–275, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, Friedman J M: Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 372: 425–432, 1994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nara Y, Gao M, Ikeda K, Sato T, Sawamura M, Kawano K, Yamori Y: Genetic analysis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 241: 200–204, 1997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schwartz, G J; Whitney, A; Skoglund, C; Castonguay, T W; Moran, T H: Decreased responsiveness to dietary fat in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats lacking CCK-A receptors. Am J Physiol 277: R1144–R1151, 1999Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Luo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Akiko Kashiwagi
    • 2
  • Toshiyuki Shibahara
    • 2
  • Kazuo Yamada
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Division of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineTottori UniversityYonagoJapan
  2. 2.Division of Laboratory Animal Science, Research Center for Bioscience and TechnologyTottori UniversityTottoriJapan
  3. 3.International DepartmentThe Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations