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Mathematical Geosciences

, 40:753 | Cite as

Identifying the Representative Elementary Volume for Permeability in Heterolithic Deposits Using Numerical Rock Models

  • Kjetil NordahlEmail author
  • Philip S. Ringrose
Article

Abstract

Using a range of realistic 3D numerical lithofacies (dm-scale) models of ripple laminated sandstone intercalated with mudstone we evaluate how single-phase permeability varies as a function of sample support. The models represent a range of mudstone content which is typical for tidal deposits. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of flow barriers (i.e. mudstone) is not random, but governed by sedimentological rules giving a variable anisotropy ratio as a function of mudstone content. Both vertical and horizontal permeability are found to vary at small sample volumes, but these fluctuations reduce as the sample volume increases. The vertical permeability increases while the horizontal permeability is nearly constant as a function of sample support for small mudstone contents. For higher mudstone content, the horizontal permeability decreases while the vertical permeability is nearly constant as a function of sample support. We propose a criterion, based on a normalised standard deviation, to determine the Representative Elementary Volume (REV). The size of the REV is dependent on both the property measured (vertical and horizontal permeability) and the correlation lengths of the lithological elements (i.e. lithofacies). Based on this we identify three flow upscaling regimes that each require a different method for upscaling: (1) layered systems where the arithmetic and harmonic averages are appropriate, (2) systems close to the percolation threshold where a percolation model should be used, and (3) discontinuous systems where an effective medium method provides the best estimate of permeability. The work gives, by using numerical experiments on a range of heterogeneous systems, a new insight in determination of the REV for permeability at the lithofacies scale and its relation to sedimentological parameters.

Keywords

Permeability Representative elementary volume Heterolithic sandstone 

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Copyright information

© International Association for Mathematical Geology 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.StatoilHydro Research CentreTrondheimNorway

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