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Mathematical Geology

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 81–100

# The Probability Perturbation Method: A New Look at Bayesian Inverse Modeling

• Jef Caers
• Todd Hoffman
Article

Building of models in the Earth Sciences often requires the solution of an inverse problem: some unknown model parameters need to be calibrated with actual measurements. In most cases, the set of measurements cannot completely and uniquely determine the model parameters; hence multiple models can describe the same data set. Bayesian inverse theory provides a framework for solving this problem. Bayesian methods rely on the fact that the conditional probability of the model parameters given the data (the posterior) is proportional to the likelihood of observing the data and a prior belief expressed as a prior distribution of the model parameters. In case the prior distribution is not Gaussian and the relation between data and parameters (forward model) is strongly non-linear, one has to resort to iterative samplers, often Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, for generating samples that fit the data likelihood and reflect the prior model statistics. While theoretically sound, such methods can be slow to converge, and are often impractical when the forward model is CPU demanding. In this paper, we propose a new sampling method that allows to sample from a variety of priors and condition model parameters to a variety of data types. The method does not rely on the traditional Bayesian decomposition of posterior into likelihood and prior, instead it uses so-called pre-posterior distributions, i.e. the probability of the model parameters given some subset of the data. The use of pre-posterior allows to decompose the data into so-called, “easy data” (or linear data) and “difficult data” (or nonlinear data). The method relies on fast non-iterative sequential simulation to generate model realizations. The difficult data is matched by perturbing an initial realization using a perturbation mechanism termed “probability perturbation.” The probability perturbation method moves the initial guess closer to matching the difficult data, while maintaining the prior model statistics and the conditioning to the linear data. Several examples are used to illustrate the properties of this method.

## Keywords

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Training Image Forward Model Grid Node History Match
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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## Copyright information

© International Association for Mathematical Geology 2006

## Authors and Affiliations

• Jef Caers
• 1
• Todd Hoffman
• 1
1. 1.Department of Petroleum EngineeringMontana Tech of the University of MontanaButteUSA

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