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A new C-OAR-SE-based content-valid and predictively valid measure that distinguishes brand love from brand liking


This article provides a new, C-OAR-SE-based, contrastive measure that distinguishes “brand love” from “brand liking.” The new measure is tested in an empirical study conducted among German university students about brands of products that they buy in four diverse product categories. From a consumer perspective, the incidence of consumers who have a loved brand in the category was found to be only 17 % for laundry detergent, 18 % for coffee, and 26 % for computers, peaking at 45 % in the fashion clothing category — findings that suggest that over half of young consumers do not acquire the state of brand love. Turning alternatively to a brand perspective, the findings indicate that, in general, about one in four of the brand’s customers will come to love the brand. Loving the brand, versus merely liking it, clearly pays off behaviorally — thereby demonstrating very good predictive validity for the new contrastive measure. Brand purchase or usage rate and brand recommendations were found to be approximately doubled for those who love the brand in comparison with those who merely like it.

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Correspondence to John R. Rossiter.

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Rossiter, J.R. A new C-OAR-SE-based content-valid and predictively valid measure that distinguishes brand love from brand liking. Mark Lett 23, 905–916 (2012).

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  • Brand love
  • Brand liking
  • C-OAR-SE method
  • New contrastive measure