Photonic crystals (PCs) are synthetic materials that are used to control light propagation. PCs have a frequency bandgap where light is forbidden to propagate. This bandgap is strongly tied to the microstructure of the photonic crystal. Three-dimensional tungsten photonic crystal in a Lincoln-log microstructure has been suggested as a strong alternative filter in photovoltaic cells with significantly high power efficiency. PCs have also been suggested as sensors for submicron damage. Therefore, mechanical characterization of three-dimensional photonic crystals becomes of interest. Here we report on mechanical characterization of tungsten PC using means of micro-indentation. We also present a three-dimensional finite element simulation of the structural response of a Tungsten photonic crystal under micro-indentation load. Stresses developed in the PC can be used to quantify the level of damage in the crystal. We compare our simulation results with the experimental observations of a Vickers and Knoop micro-indentation experiments of tungsten PC. The FE models were proven able to simulate the mechanical response of the PC with a good accuracy. The calibrated FE models can be further used to realize the mechanical behavior of PC under different thermal and mechanical stresses when used as filters in photovoltaic cells or to simulate the effect of damage in PC sensors.
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This research was partly funded by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Specimens tested here were provided by the late Dr. J. Fleming, Sandia National Laboratories. The authors owe special thanks for Dr. Fleming for his sincere support throughout the study. Special thanks should also go to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)-Student Research Assistant (SRA) program for funding the first author during the course of this study. The authors greatly acknowledge this support. Finally, assistance with the simulations by Julie Kimsal from the mechanical engineering department at UNM is appreciated.
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Sheyka, M., El-Kady, I., Khraishi, T. et al. Micro-indentation of metallic photonic crystals: experimental and numerical investigations. Int J Mech Mater Des 4, 407–418 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10999-008-9079-x
- Photonic crystals
- Finite element method
- Micro damage