Behnke, M., & Smith, V. C. (2013). Committee on substance abuse, and committee on fetus and newborn, “prenatal substance abuse: short- and long-term effects on the exposed fetus.” Pediatrics, 131(3), e1009–e1024.
Burris, H. H., & Hacker, M. R. (2017). Birth outcome racial disparities: a result of intersecting social and environmental factors. Seminars in Perinatology, 41(6), 360–366.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Leading Causes of Death Reports, 1981–2017,” on WISQARS online database, n.d.a. As of June 27, 2019: https://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/leadcause.html
El-Sayed, A. M., Finkton, D. W., Jr., Paczkowski, M., Keyes, K. M., & Galea, S. (2015). Socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and racial disparities in cause-specific infant mortality in Michigan, USA. Preventive Medicine, 76, 8–13.
Ely, D. M., & Driscoll, A. K. (2019). Infant mortality in the United States, 2017: data from the period linked birth/infant death file.
Haider, B. A., Olofin, I., Wang, M., Spiegelman, D., Ezzati, M., & Fawzi, W. W. (2013). Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: syStematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 336, f3443.
Huang, Q. T., Huang, Q., Zhong, M., Wei, S. S., Luo, W., Li, F., & Yu, Y. H. (2015). Chronic Hepatitis C virus infection is associated with increased risk of preterm birth: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 22(12), 1033–1042.
Kochanek, K. D., S. L. Murphy, J. Q. Xu, and E. Arias, Mortality in the United States, 2016, NCHS Data Brief, No 293, Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, 2017.
Koren, G. (2013). Systematic review of the effects of maternal hypertension in pregnancy and antihypertensive therapies on child neurocognitive development. Reproductive Toxicology, 39, 1–5.
Kozuki, N., Lee, A. C., Silveira, M. F., Sania, A., Vogel, J. P., Adair, L., & Humphrey, J. (2013a). The associations of parity and maternal age with small-for-gestational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: A meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 13(3), S2.
Kozuki, N., Lee, A. C., Silveira, M. F., Victora, C. G., Adair, L., Humphrey, J., & Katz, J. (2013b). The associations of birth intervals with small-for-festational-age, preterm, and neonatal and infant mortality: A meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 13(3), S3.
Lemon, L. S., Naimi, A. I., Abrams, B., Kaufman, J. S., & Bodnar, L. M. (2016). Prepregnancy obesity and the racial disparity in infant mortality. Obesity, 24(12), 2578–2584.
MacDorman, M. F., Mathews, T. J., Mohangoo, A. D., & Zeitlin, J. (2014). International comparisons of infant mortality and related factors: United States and Europe, 2010, National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 10, No. 5, Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics.
Marchi, J., Berg, M., Dencker, A., Olander, E. K., & Begley, C. (2015). Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: A systematic review of reviews. Obesity Reviews, 16(8), 621–638.
Parks, S. E., Lambert, A. B. E., & Shapiro-Mendoza, C. K. (2017). Racial and ethnic trends in sudden unexpected infant deaths: United States, 1995–2013. Pediatrics, 139(6), e20163844.
Schultz, D., Lovejoy, S.L., Peet, E.D. Examining Interventions to Address Infant Mortality in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2020. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA858-1.html.