Abramovitz, M. (2006). Welfare reform in the United States: Gender, race and class matter. Critical Social Policy, 26(2), 336–364. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261018306062589.
Adding Father to Birth Certificate. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.scdhec.gov/VitalRecords/PaternityAndLegitimation/.
Alexander, M. (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness (Revised ed.). New York: The New Press.
Alio, A. P., Mbah, A. K., Kornosky, J. L., Wathington, D., Marty, P. J., & Salihu, H. M. (2011). Assessing the impact of paternal involvement on racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality rates. Journal of Community Health, 36(1), 63–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-010-9280-3.
Alio, A. P., Salihu, H. M., Kornosky, J. L., Richman, A. M., & Marty, P. J. (2010). Feto-infant health and survival: Does paternal involvement matter? Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14(6), 931–937. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-009-0531-9.
American FactFinder 2015 ACS 5-year Selected Population Tables. (2017). Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/searchresults.xhtml?refresh=t.
Astone, N. M., Misra, D., & Lynch, C. (2007). The effect of maternal socio-economic status throughout the lifespan on infant birthweight. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 21(4), 310–318. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2007.00821.x.
Castrillio, S. M., Rankin, K. M., David, R. J., & Collins, J. W. (2014). Small-for-gestational age and preterm birth across generations: A population-based study of Illinois births. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(10), 2456–2464. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-014-1484-1.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). 2013 NCHS urban-rural classification scheme for counties.
Chapman, D. A., & Gray, G. (2014). Developing a maternally linked birth dataset to study the generational recurrence of low birthweight in Virginia. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(2), 488–496. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-013-1277-y.
Chetty, R., Hendren, N., Kline, P., & Saez, E. (2014). Where is the land of opportunity? The geography of intergenerational mobility in the United States. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 129(4), 1553–1623.
Colen, C. G., Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., & James, S. A. (2006). Maternal upward socioeconomic mobility and Black-White disparities in infant birthweight. American Journal of Public Health, 96(11), 2032–2039. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.076547.
Collins, J. W., David, R. J., Rankin, K. M., & Desireddi, J. R. (2009). Transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on low birth weight among African Americans in Cook County, Illinois. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169(6), 712–717.
Collins, J. W. Jr., Rankin, K. M., & David, R. J. (2011a). African American women’s lifetime upward economic mobility and preterm birth: The effect of fetal programming. American Journal of Public Health, 101(4), 714–719.
Collins, J. W., Rankin, K. M., & David, R. J. (2011b). Low birth weight across generations: The effect of economic environment. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(4), 438–445. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-010-0603-x.
Collins, J. W., Rankin, K. M., & David, R. J. (2015). Downward economic mobility and preterm birth: An exploratory study of Chicago-born upper class white mothers. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(7), 1601–1607.
Current Population Survey Table Creator. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/cps/data/cpstablecreator.html.
David, R., Rankin, K., Lee, K., Prachand, N., Love, C., & Collins, J. (2008). The Illinois transgenerational birth file: Life-course analysis of birth outcomes using vital records and census data over decades. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14(1), 121–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-008-0433-2.
David, R. J., & Collins, J. W. Jr. (1990). Bad outcomes in black babies: Race or racism? Ethnicity & disease, 1(3), 236–244.
Dietz, P. M., England, L. J., Callaghan, W. M., Pearl, M., Wier, M. L., & Kharrazi, M. (2007). A comparison of LMP-based and ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age using linked California livebirth and prenatal screening records. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 21, 62–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2007.00862.x.
Emanuel, I., Leisenring, W., Williams, M., Kimpo, C., Estee, S., O’Brien, W., & Hale, C. (1999). The Washington State Intergenerational Study of Birth Outcomes: Methodology and some comparisons of maternal birthweight and infant birthweight and gestation in four ethnic groups. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 13(3), 352–369.
Gaudino, J. A., Jenkins, B., & Rochat, R. W. (1999). No fathers’ names: A risk factor for infant mortality in the State of Georgia, USA. Social Science & Medicine, 48(2), 253–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00342-6.
Hackman, E., Emanuel, I., Van Belle, G., & Daling, J. (1983). Maternal birth weight and subsequent pregnancy outcome. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 250(15), 2016–2019. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1983.03340150058027.
Ingram, D., & Franco, S. (2014). 2013 NCHS urban-rural classification scheme for counties. Vital and Health Statistic, 2(166), 1–73.
Jones, C. P. (2000). Levels of racism: A theoretic framework and a gardener’s tale. American Journal of Public Health, 90(8), 1212.
Klebanoff, M. A., & Yip, R. (1987). Influence of maternal birth weight on rate of fetal growth and duration of gestation. The Journal of Pediatrics, 111(2), 287–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(87)80089-6.
Kleinman, J. C., & Kessel, S. S. (1987). Racial differences in low birth weight. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(12), 749–753.
Lhila, A., & Long, S. R. (2012). What is driving the black-white difference in low birthweight in the US? Health Economics, 21(3), 301–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.1715.
Lu, M. C., & Halfon, N. (2003). Racial and ethnic disparities in birth outcomes: A life-course perspective. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 7(1), 13–30.
Morton, S. M., De Stavola, B. L., & Leon, D. A. (2014). Intergenerational determinants of offspring size at birth: A life course and graphical analysis using the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study (ACONF). International Journal of Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyu028.
Ncube, C. N., Enquobahrie, D. A., Burke, J. G., Ye, F., Marx, J., & Albert, S. M. (2017). Transgenerational transmission of preterm birth risk: The role of race and generational socio-economic neighborhood context. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21(8), 1616–1626. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2251-2.
Nepomnyaschy, L. (2010). Race disparities in low birth weight in the U.S. south and the rest of the nation. Social Science & Medicine, 70(5), 684–691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.11.013.
Raley, R. K., Sweeney, M. M., & Wondra, D. (2015). The growing racial and ethnic divide in U.S. marriage patterns. The Future of Children, 25(2), 89–109.
Report of the Panel to Evaluate the U.S. Standard Certificates. (2000). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/dvs/panelreport_acc.pdf.
Rothstein, R. (2017). The color of law: A forgotten history of how our government segregated America. New York: Liveright Publishing.
Ruiz, R. L., Shah, M. K., Lewis, M. L., & Theall, K. P. (2014). Perceived access to health services and provider information and adverse birth outcomes: Findings from LaPRAMS, 2007–2008. Southern Medical Journal, 107(3), 137–143.
Slaughter-Acey, J. C., Holzman, C., Calloway, D., & Tian, Y. (2015). Movin’ on up: Socioeconomic mobility and the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational age infant. Maternal and Child Health Journal. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-015-1860-5.
Tan, H., Wen, S. W., Walker, M., & Demissie, K. (2004). Missing paternal demographics: A novel indicator for identifying high risk population of adverse pregnancy outcomes. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 4(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-4-21.
United Health Foundation. (2015). America’s health rankings: South Carolina. Retrieved from http://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/2015-annual-report/measure/Overall/state/SC.
Urban and Rural Population by State, 2010. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/geo/www/ua/2010urbanruralclass.html.