Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 512–519 | Cite as

Preeclampsia and Hypertension During Pregnancy in Areas with Relatively Low Levels of Traffic Air Pollution

  • Christian Madsen
  • Siri Eldevik Håberg
  • Geir Aamodt
  • Hein Stigum
  • Per Magnus
  • Stephanie J. London
  • Wenche Nystad
  • Per Nafstad
Article
  • 146 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives Air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of preeclampsia and hypertension during pregnancy. However, the evidence for such a relation is still limited. We investigated the associations between exposure for moderate to low levels of air pollution during pregnancy and preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in selected urban and county areas of Norway. Methods This study used a sub-group of 17,533 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Air pollution levels at residential addresses were estimated using land use regression models and back-extrapolated to the period of each pregnancy. Information on preeclampsia and gestational hypertension were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and information on lifestyle factors was collected from questionnaires completed by the women during pregnancy. Results Moderate mean levels of NO2 (13.6 ± 6.9 µg/m3) at residential address during pregnancy were not associated with preeclampsia and pregnancy hypertension. We found no statistically significant associations per 10 µg/m3 change in NO2 exposure and preeclampsia (adjusted OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08) or hypertension during pregnancy (adjusted OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.78, 1.06). Conclusions for Practice In this large Norwegian pregnancy cohort, we found no statistically significant associations for moderate to low levels of pregnancy NO2 exposure and preeclampsia or hypertension during pregnancy.

Keywords

Air pollution NO2 Preeclampsia Pregnancy hypertension The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The co-authors would like to express gratitude to all MoBa cohort participants and research team, to Sviatlana Panasevich and Jon Wickmann at NIPH for their help with the database management, and to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research team for providing valuable research data thru their national air quality database.

Author Contributions

PN, SJL, WN, PM were involved in conception, hypothesis delineation and study design. SJL, GA, SEH, CM contributed to the exposure assessment. CM and PN drafted the manuscript. All authors were involved in data interpretation and approved the final submitted version of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethics Approval

The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study has approvals from the Regional Ethics Committee and the Norwegian Data Inspectorate. The current study is based on version VI of the quality-assured data files released for research on the 15th April 2011.

References

  1. Beelen, R., Hoek, G., Vienneau, D., Eeftens, M., Dimakopoulou, K., Pedeli, X., et al. (2013). Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe - The ESCAPE project. Atmospheric Environment, 72, 10–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brook, R. D., Rajagopalan, S., Pope, C. A. 3rd, Bhatnagar, A., Diez-Roux, A. V., Holguin, F., et al. (2010). Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 121(21), 2331–2378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Dadvand, P., Figueras, F., Basagana, X., Beelen, R., Martinez, D., Cirach, M., et al. (2013). Ambient air pollution and preeclampsia: A spatiotemporal analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(11–12), 1365–1371.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Dadvand, P., Ostro, B., Amato, F., Figueras, F., Minguillón, M. C., Martinez, D., et al. (2014). Particulate air pollution and preeclampsia: a source-based analysis. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71(8), 570–577.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Engel, S. M., Scher, E., Wallenstein, S., Savitz, D. A., Alsaker, E. R., Trogstad, L., et al. (2013). Maternal active and passive smoking and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: Risk with trimester-specific exposures. Epidemiology, 24(3), 379–386.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Hu, H., Ha, S., Roth, J., Kearney, G., Talbott, E. O., & Xu, X. (2014). Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atmospheric Environment, 97, 336–345.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Klungsoyr, K., Harmon, Q. E., Skard, L. B., Simonsen, I., Austvoll, E. T., Alsaker, E. R., et al. (2014). Validity of pre-eclampsia registration in the medical birth registry of Norway for women participating in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study, 1999–2010. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 28(5), 362–371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee, P. C., Roberts, J. M., Catov, J. M., Talbott, E. O., & Ritz, B. (2013). First trimester exposure to ambient air pollution, pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes in Allegheny County, PA. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17(3), 545–555.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Magnus, P., Birke, C., Vejrup, K., Haugan, A., Alsaker, E., Daltveit, A. K., et al. (2016). Cohort profile update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). International Journal of Epidemiology, 45(2), 382–388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Malmqvist, E., Jakobsson, K., Tinnerberg, H., Rignell-Hydbom, A., & Rylander, L. (2013). Gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in association with air pollution at levels below current air quality guidelines. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(4), 488–493.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Mobasher, Z., Salam, M. T., Goodwin, T. M., Lurmann, F., Ingles, S. A., & Wilson, M. L. (2013). Associations between ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Environmental Research, 123, 9–16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Olsson, D., Mogren, I., & Forsberg, B. (2013) Air pollution exposure in early pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes: A register-based cohort study. British Medical Journal Open 3(2), e001955Google Scholar
  13. Panasevich, S., Håberg, S. E., Aamodt, G., London, S. J., Stigum, H., Nystad, W., et al. (2016). Association between pregnancy exposure to air pollution and birth weight in selected areas of Norway. Archives of Public Health, 74, 26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Pedersen, M., Giorgis-Allemand, L., Bernard, C., Aguilera, I., Andersen, A. M., Ballester, F., et al. (2013). Ambient air pollution and low birthweight: A European Cohort Study (ESCAPE). The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 1(9), 695–704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Pedersen, M., Halldorsson, T. I., Olsen, S. F., Hjortebjerg, D., Ketzel, M., Grandström, C., et al. (2017). Impact of road traffic pollution on pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. Epidemiology, 28(1), 99–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Pedersen, M., Stayner, L., Slama, R., Sørensen, M., Figueras, F., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., et al. (2014). Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hypertension, 64(3), 494–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Pereira, G., Haggar, F., Shand, A. W., Bower, C., Cook, A., & Nassar, N. (2013). Association between pre-eclampsia and locally derived traffic-related air pollution: a retrospective cohort study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 67(2), 147–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Sibai, B., Dekker, G., & Kupferminc, M. (2005). Pre-eclampsia. The Lancet, 365(9461), 785–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Skjaerven, R., Wilcox, A. J., & Lie, R. T. (2002). The interval between pregnancies and the risk of preeclampsia. New England Journal of Medicine, 346(1), 33–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Steegers, E. A., von Dadelszen, P., Duvekot, J. J., & Pijnenborg, R. (2010). Pre-eclampsia. The Lancet, 376(9741), 631–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. van den Hooven, E. H., de Kluizenaar, Y., Pierik, F. H., van Ratingen, S. W., Zandveld, P. Y., Mackenbach, J. P., et al. (2011). Air pollution, blood pressure, and the risk of hypertensive complications during pregnancy: The generation R study. Hypertension, 57(3), 406–412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. van den Hooven, E. H., Jaddoe, V. W., de Kluizenaar, Y., Hofman, A., Mackenbach, J. P., Steegers, E. A. P., et al. (2009). Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: A prospective birth cohort study. Environmental Health, 8, 59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Wu, J., Ren, C., Delfino, R. J., Chung, J., Wilhelm, M., & Ritz, B. (2009). Association between local traffic-generated air pollution and preeclampsia and preterm delivery in the south coast air basin of California. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(11), 1773–1779.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Xu, X., Hu, H., Ha, S., & Roth, J. (2014). Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 68(1), 13–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Yorifuji, T., Naruse, H., Kashima, S., Murakoshi, T., & Doi, H. (2015). Residential proximity to major roads and obstetrical complications. Science of The Total Environment, 508, 188–192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Madsen
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
  • Siri Eldevik Håberg
    • 1
  • Geir Aamodt
    • 2
  • Hein Stigum
    • 1
    • 3
  • Per Magnus
    • 1
  • Stephanie J. London
    • 4
  • Wenche Nystad
    • 1
  • Per Nafstad
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Domain for Mental and Physical HealthNorwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial PlanningNorwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway
  3. 3.Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Medical FacultyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health SciencesNational Institutes of HealthResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  5. 5.Department of Health and Inequality, Domain for Mental and Physical HealthNorwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations