Advertisement

Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 1581–1588 | Cite as

Disparities in Infant Mortality by Race Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Infants

  • Whitney S. RiceEmail author
  • Samantha S. Goldfarb
  • Anne E. Brisendine
  • Stevie Burrows
  • Martha S. Wingate
Article

Abstract

Objectives

U.S.-born Hispanic infants have a well-documented health advantage relative to other minority groups. However, little published research has examined racial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population, in relation to health outcomes. The current study aims to explore possible implications of racial identification for the health of U.S. born Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic infants. Methods Data were drawn from 2007 to 2008 NCHS Cohort Linked Live Birth—Infant Death Files, restricted to deliveries of Hispanic black, Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white mothers (NHW) (n = 7,901,858). Adjusted odds ratios for first week mortality, neonatal, postneonatal, and overall infant mortality were calculated for each group, using NHW as the reference group. Results: A distinct health gradient was observed in which NHB infants (n = 1,250,222) had the highest risk of first week (aOR 2.29, CI 2.21–2.37), neonatal (aOR 2.23, CI 2.17–2.30), postneonatal (aOR 1.74, CI 1.68–1.81), and infant mortality (aOR 2.05, CI 2.00–2.10) compared to NHW infants (n = 4,578,150). Hispanic black infants (n = 84,377) also experienced higher risk of first-week (aOR 1.28 (1.12–1.47), neonatal (aOR .27, CI 1.13–1.44), postneonatal (aOR 1.34, CI 1.15–1.56), and infant mortality (aOR 1.30, CI 1.18–1.43) compared to both NHW and Hispanic white infants (n = 1,989,109). Conclusions for Practice: Risk of infant mortality varies among Hispanic infants by race, with poorer outcomes experienced by Hispanic black infants. Compared to non-Hispanic infants of the same race, Hispanic black infants experience a smaller health disadvantage and Hispanic white infants have better or similar infant health outcomes. Our findings suggest implications of racial heterogeneity on infant health outcomes, and provide insight into the role of race as a social construct.

Keywords

Fetal Perinatal and infant mortality Ethnic and racial disparities African-American health Latino health Vital statistics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This research was made possible through grant number T76MC00008 from the Health Resources Services Administration (HRSA), an operating division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). W.S.R. is supported by a training grant in Health Services, Outcomes and Effectiveness Research (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality T32HS013852). The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of HRSA, HHS or AHRQ.

References

  1. Albrecht, S. S., & Gordon-Larsen, P. (2013). Ethnic differences in body mass index trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: A focus on Hispanic and Asian subgroups in the United States. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e72983. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072983.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, G. R., Himes, J. H., Kaufman, R. B., Mor, J., & Kogan, M. (1996). A United States national reference for fetal growth. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 87(2), 163–168. doi: 10.1016/0029-7844(95)00386-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bediako, P. T., BeLue, R., & Hillemeier, M. M. (2015). A comparison of birth Outcomes among Black, Hispanic, and Black Hispanic women. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. doi: 10.1007/s40615-015-0110-2.Google Scholar
  4. Blumenshine, P., Egerter, S., Barclay, C. J., Cubbin, C., & Braveman, P. A. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in adverse birth outcomes: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39(3), 263–272. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.05.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Borrell, L. N., & Crawford, N. D. (2009). All-cause mortality among Hispanics in the United States: Exploring heterogeneity by nativity status, country of origin, and race in the National Health Interview Survey-linked Mortality Files. Annals of Epidemiology, 19(5), 336–343. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.12.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Borrell, L. N., & Dallo, F. J. (2008). Self-rated health and race among Hispanic and non-Hispanic adults. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health/Center for Minority Public Health, 10(3), 229–238. doi: 10.1007/s10903-007-9074-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braveman, P. (2014). What is health equity: And how does a life-course approach take us further toward it? Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(2), 366–372. doi: 10.1007/s10995-013-1226-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Braveman, P. A., Heck, K., Egerter, S., Marchi, K. S., Dominguez, T. P., Cubbin, C.,... Curtis, M (2015). The role of socioeconomic factors in Black–White disparities in preterm birth. American Journal of Public Health, 105(4), 694–702. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Burgos, G., & Rivera, F. (2009). The (In)significance of race and discrimination among Latino Youth: The case of depressive symptoms. Sociol Focus, 42(2), 152–171. doi: 10.1080/00380237.2009.10571348.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Burris, H. H., Baccarelli, A. A., Motta, V., Byun, H.-M., Just, A. C., Mercado-Garcia, A., ... Téllez-Rojo, M. M. W., & Robert, O. (2014). Association between length of gestation and cervical DNA methylation of PTGER2 and LINE 1-HS. Epigenetics, 9(8), 1083–1091. doi: 10.4161/epi.29170.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Burris, H. H., Collins, J. W. Jr., & Wright, R. O. (2011). Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth: Clues from environmental exposures. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 23(2), 227–232. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e328344568f.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Carty, D. C., Kruger, D. J., Turner, T. M., Campbell, B., Deloney, E. H., & Lewis, E. Y. (2011). Racism, health status, and birth outcomes: Results of a participatory community-based intervention and health survey. Journal of Urban Health, 88(1), 84–97. doi: 10.1007/s11524-010-9530-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins, J. W. Jr., & David, R. J. (2009). Racial disparity in low birth weight and infant mortality. Clinics in Perinatology, 36(1), 63–73. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2008.09.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2010). A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  15. David, R., & Collins, J. Jr. (2007). Disparities in infant mortality: What’s genetics got to do with it? American Journal of Public Health, 97(7), 1191–1197.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Dominguez, T. P., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Glynn, L. M., Hobel, C., & Sandman, C. A. (2008). Racial differences in birth outcomes: the role of general, pregnancy, and racism stress. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 27(2), 194–203. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.27.2.194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fox, M., Entringer, S., Buss, C., DeHaene, J., & Wadhwa, P. D. (2015). Intergenerational transmission of the effects of acculturation on health in Hispanic Americans: a fetal programming perspective. American Journal of Public Health, 105 Suppl 3, S409–423. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302571.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Frey, C. A., Farrell, P. M., Cotton, Q. D., Lathen, L. S., & Marks, K. (2014). Wisconsin’s lifecourse initiative for healthy families: Application of the maternal and child health life course perspective through a regional funding initiative. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(2), 413–422. doi: 10.1007/s10995-013-1271-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldfarb, S. S., Smith, W., Epstein, A. E., Burrows, S., & Wingate, M. (2016). Disparities in prenatal care utilization among U.S. Versus foreign-born women with chronic conditions. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health/Center for Minority Public Health. doi: 10.1007/s10903-016-0435-x.Google Scholar
  20. Green, T. (2014). Hispanic self-identification and birth weight outcomes among U.S.- and foreign-born Blacks. The Review of Black Political Economy, 41(3), 319–336. doi: 10.1007/s12114-014-9186-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grimes, D. A., & Schulz, K. F. (2008). Making sense of odds and odds ratios. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 111(2 Pt 1), 423–426. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000297304.32187.5d.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Henry-Sanchez, B. L., & Geronimus, A. T. (2013). Racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality among U.S. Latinos. Du Bois Review, 10(1), 205–231. doi: 10.1017/S1742058X13000064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hogue, C. J., & Hargraves, M. A. (1993). Class, race, and infant mortality in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 83(1), 9–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Humes, K. R., Jones, N. A., & Ramirez, R. R. (2011). Overview of race and Hispanic origin: 2010. (C2010BR-02). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  25. Kruger, D. J., Carty, D. C., Turbeville, A. R., French-Turner, T. M., & Brownlee, S. (2015). Undoing racism through Genesee county’s REACH Infant mortality reduction Initiative. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 9(1), 57–63. doi: 10.1353/cpr.2015.0004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kruger, D. J., French-Turner, T., & Brownlee, S. (2013). Genesee COUNTY REACH windshield tours: Enhancing health professionals understanding of community conditions that influence infant mortality. Journal of Primary Prevention, 34(3), 163–172. doi: 10.1007/s10935-013-0301-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lu, M. C., & Halfon, N. (2003). Racial and ethnic disparities in birth outcomes: a life-course perspective. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 7(1), 13–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Montealegre, J. R., Zhou, R., Amirian, E. S., Follen, M., & Scheurer, M. E. (2013). Nativity disparities in late-stage diagnosis and cause-specific survival among Hispanic women with invasive cervical cancer: An analysis of surveillance, epidemiology, and end results data. Cancer Causes & Control: CCC, 24(11), 1985–1994. doi: 10.1007/s10552-013-0274-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Osterman, M. J., Kochanek, K. D., MacDorman, M. F., Strobino, D. M., & Guyer, B. (2015). Annual summary of vital statistics: 2012–2013. Pediatrics, 135(6), 1115–1125. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-0434.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Papacek, E. M., Collins, J. W. Jr., Schulte, N. F., Goergen, C., & Drolet, A. (2002). Differing postneonatal mortality rates of African-American and white infants in Chicago: An ecologic study. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 6(2), 99–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Petersen, D. J., & Alexander, G. R. (1992). Seasonal variation in adolescent conceptions, induced abortions, and late initiation of prenatal care. Public Health Reports (Washington, D. C.: 1974), 107(6), 701–706.Google Scholar
  32. Rossen, L. M., & Schoendorf, K. C. (2014). Trends in racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality rates in the United States, 1989–2006. American Journal of Public Health, 104(8), 1549–1556. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301272.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Rowley, D. L., & Hogan, V. (2012) Disparities in infant mortality and effective, equitable care: Are infants suffering from benign neglect?. Annual Review of Public Health, 33, 75–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Schoendorf, K. C., & Branum, A. M. (2006). The use of United States vital statistics in perinatal and obstetric research. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 194(4), 911–915. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2005.11.020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Yankauer, A. (1990). What infant mortality tells us. American Journal of Public Health, 80(6), 653–654.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Whitney S. Rice
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samantha S. Goldfarb
    • 2
  • Anne E. Brisendine
    • 3
  • Stevie Burrows
    • 4
  • Martha S. Wingate
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Behavioral Sciences and Social Medicine, College of MedicineFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public HealthUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  4. 4.University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public HealthUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations