Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 734–744 | Cite as

Effects of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure on Infant Language Development: A Cohort Follow Up Study

  • Carmen Hernández-Martínez
  • Núria Voltas Moreso
  • Blanca Ribot Serra
  • Victoria Arija Val
  • Joaquín Escribano Macías
  • Josefa Canals Sans
Article

Abstract

Objectives To study the longitudinal effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on cognitive development, taking into consideration prenatal and postnatal second-hand smoke exposure. Methods A cohort follow up study was carried out. One hundred and fifty-eight pregnant women and their infants were followed during pregnancy and infant development (at 6, 12, 30 months). In each trimester of pregnancy and during postnatal follow-up, a survey was administered to obtain sociodemographic data and the details of maternal and close familial toxic habits. Obstetric and neonatal data were obtained from hospital medical records. To assess cognitive development, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were applied at 6, 12 and 30 months; to assess language development, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories were applied at 12 months and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 30 months. Results After adjustment for confounding variables, the results showed that infants prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke recorded poor cognitive development scores. Language development was most consistently affected, specifically those aspects related to auditory function (vocalizations, sound discrimination, word imitation, prelinguistic vocalizations, and word and sentence comprehension). Conclusions for Practice Irrespective of prenatal, perinatal and sociodemographic data (including infant postnatal nicotine exposure), prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and second-hand smoke affect infant cognitive development, especially language abilities.

Keywords

Maternal smoking during pregnancy Secondhand smoke exposure Infant development Cognitive development Language development 

References

  1. Abidin, R. (1995). Parenting Stress Index (2nd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  2. Batstra, L. (2003). Can breast feeding modify the adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the child’s cognitive development? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57(6), 403–404.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Batstra, L., Hadders-Algra, M., & Neeleman, J. (2003). Effect of antenatal exposure to maternal smoking on behavioural problems and academic achievement in childhood: Prospective evidence from a Dutch birth cohort. Early Human Development, 75(1–2), 21–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bayley, N. (1993). Bayley scales for infant development (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  5. Button, T. M. M., Maughan, B., & McGuffin, P. (2007). The relationship of maternal smoking to psychological problems in the offspring. Early Human Development, 83(11), 727–732.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Campbell, J. M., Bell, S. K., & Keith, L. K. (2001). Concurrent validity of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition as an intelligence and achievement screener for low SES African American children. Assessment, 8(1), 85–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Conroy, S., Pariante, C. M., Marks, M. N., Davies, H. A., Farrelly, S., Schacht, R., et al. (2012). Maternal psychopathology and infant development at 18 months: The impact of maternal personality disorder and depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(1), 51–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cowperthwaite, B., Hains, S. M. J., & Kisilevsky, B. S. (2007). Fetal behavior in smoking compared to non-smoking pregnant women. Infant Behavior & Development, 30(3), 422–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ding, Y., Xu, X., Wang, Z., Li, H., & Wang, W. (2014). The relation of infant attachment to attachment and cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early childhood. Early Human Development, 90(9), 459–464.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dwyer, J. B., Broide, R. S., & Leslie, F. M. (2008). Nicotine and brain development. Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews, 84(1), 30–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eskenazi, B., & Castorina, R. (1999). Association of prenatal maternal or postnatal child environmental tobacco smoke exposure and neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems in children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(12), 991–1000.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Fried, P. A., & Watkinson, B. (2000). Visuoperceptual functioning differs in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 22(1), 11–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fried, P. A., Watkinson, B., & Gray, R. (1992). A follow-up study of attentional behavior in 6-year-old children exposed prenatally to marihuana, cigarettes, and alcohol. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 14(5), 299–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2007). Direct and passive prenatal nicotine exposure and the development of externalizing psychopathology. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 38(4), 255–269.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Hansell, N. K., Halford, G. S., Andrews, G., Shum, D. H. K., Harris, S. E., Davies, G., et al. (2015). Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric. PLoS One, 10(4), e0123886.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Hernández-Martínez, C., Arija Val, V., Escribano Subías, J., & Canals Sans, J. (2012). A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior. Early Human Development, 88(6), 403–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hollingshead, A. B. (2011). Four factor index of social status. Yale Journal of Sociology, 8, 21–52.Google Scholar
  18. Jacobsen, L. K., Picciotto, M. R., Heath, C. J., Frost, S. J., Tsou, K. A., Dwan, R. A., et al. (2007). Prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke modulates the development of white matter microstructure. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 27(49), 13491–13498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Julvez, J., Ribas-Fitó, N., Torrent, M., Forns, M., Garcia-Esteban, R., & Sunyer, J. (2007). Maternal smoking habits and cognitive development of children at age 4 years in a population-based birth cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(4), 825–832.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kable, J. A., Coles, C. D., Lynch, M. E., & Carroll, J. (2009). The impact of maternal smoking on fast auditory brainstem responses. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 31(4), 216–224.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Key, A. P. F., Ferguson, M., Molfese, D. L., Peach, K., Lehman, C., & Molfese, V. J. (2007). Smoking during pregnancy affects speech-processing ability in newborn infants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(4), 623–629.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, U., Ralser, E., Pupp Peglow, U., Reiter, G., Griesmaier, E., & Trawöger, R. (2010). Smoking in pregnancy: A risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants? Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992), 99(7), 1016–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knopik, V. S., Maccani, M. A., Francazio, S., & McGeary, J. E. (2012). The epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and effects on child development. Development and Psychopathology, 24(4), 1377–1390.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Koutra, K., Chatzi, L., Roumeliotaki, T., Vassilaki, M., Giannakopoulou, E., Batsos, C., et al. (2012). Socio-demographic determinants of infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age: Mother–Child Cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Infant Behavior & Development, 35(1), 48–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee, B.-E., Hong, Y.-C., Park, H., Ha, M., Kim, J. H., Chang, N., et al. (2011). Secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy and infantile neurodevelopment. Environmental Research, 111(4), 539–544.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lobo, A., Pérez-Echeverría, M. J., & Artal, J. (1986). Validity of the scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in a Spanish population. Psychoiogical Medicine, 16, 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. López Ornat, S., Gallego, C., Gallo, P., Karousou, A., Mariscal, S., & Martínez, M. (2005). Inventorios de Desarrollo Comunicativo MacArthur, Manual. Madrid: TEA Ediciones.Google Scholar
  28. Mathews, T. J. (2001). Smoking during pregnancy in the 1990s. National Vital Statistics Reports: From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, 49(7), 1–14.Google Scholar
  29. Mccartney, J. S., Fried, P. A., & Watkinson, B. (1994). Central auditory processing in school-age children prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 16(3), 269–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McDonald, S. D., Perkins, S. L., & Walker, M. C. (2005). Correlation between self-reported smoking status and serum cotinine during pregnancy. Addictive Behaviors, 30(4), 853–857.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Melo, M., Bellver, J., & Soares, S. R. (2012). The impact of cigarette smoking on the health of descendants. Expert Review of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 7(2), 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Obel, G., Henriksen, T. B., Hedegaard, M., Secher, N. J., & Østergaard, J. (1998). Smoking during pregnancy and babbling abilities of the 8-month-old infant. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 12(1), 37–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Roos, A., Geerts, L., Koen, N., Faure, S. C., Vythilingum, B., & Stein, D. J. (2015). Psychosocial predictors of fetoplacental blood flow during pregnancy. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 57, 125–131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sexton, M., Fox, N. L., & Hebel, J. R. (1990). Prenatal exposure to tobacco: II. Effects on cognitive functioning at age three. International Journal of Epidemiology, 19(1), 72–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1997). STAI Cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado Rasgo. (Adaptación Española: Nicolás Seisdedos Cubero). Madrid: TEA Ediciones.Google Scholar
  36. Strenze, T. (2015). Handbook of intelligence. In S. Goldstein, D. Princiotta, & J. A. Naglieri (Eds.), Handbook of intelligence: Evolutionary theory, historical perspective, and current concepts. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  37. Victora, C. G., Horta, B. L., de Mola, C. L., Quevedo, L., Pinheiro, R. T., Gigante, D. P., et al. (2015). Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: A prospective birth cohort study from Brazil. The Lancet Global Health, 3(4), e199–e205.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. World Health Organization. (2007). Gender and tobacco control: A policy brief. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Hernández-Martínez
    • 1
  • Núria Voltas Moreso
    • 1
  • Blanca Ribot Serra
    • 2
  • Victoria Arija Val
    • 2
  • Joaquín Escribano Macías
    • 3
  • Josefa Canals Sans
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Research Centre for Behavioral Assessment (CRAMC), Facultat de Ciències de l’Educació i PsicologiaUniversitat Rovira i VirgiliTarragonaSpain
  2. 2.Nutrition and Public Health Unit, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Pere Virgili Institut (IISPV)Universitat Rovira i VirgiliReusSpain
  3. 3.Pediatrics Department, Sant Joan de Reus University Hospital, Pere i virgili Institut (IISPV)Universitat Rovira i VirgiliReusSpain

Personalised recommendations