Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes
- 1.2k Downloads
Objective To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. Methods A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother’s and infant’s days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. Results In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant.
KeywordsInfant health Birth outcomes BMI Maternal obesity Gestational weight gain
- 1.OECD, Obesity Update, June 2014. http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Obesity-Update-2014.pdf.
- 2.McDonald, S. D., Han, Z., Mulla, S., & Beyene, J. (2010). Overweight and obesity in mothers and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight infants: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ: British Medical Journal. pp. 341–359.Google Scholar
- 3.Lu, G. C., Rouse, D. J., DuBard, M., Cliver, S., Kimberlin, D., & Hauth, J. C. (2001). The effect of increasing prevalence of maternal obesity on perinatal morbidity. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, pp. 845–849.Google Scholar
- 5.Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US). (2009). Committee to reexamine IOM pregnancy weight guidelines. In K. M. Rasmussen, & A. L. Yaktine (Eds.), Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. Washington: National Academies Press (US); Summary. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK32799/.
- 8.Lawlor, D. A., Lichtenstein, P., Fraser, A., & Långström, N. (2011). Does maternal weight gain in pregnancy have long-term effects on offspring adiposity? A sibling study in a prospective cohort of 146,894 men from 136,050 families. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(1), 142–148.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Siega-Riz, A. M., & Laraia, B. (2000). The implications of maternal overweight and obesity on the course of pregnancy and birth outcomes. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 10(1), 153–156.Google Scholar
- 14.Mamun, A. A., Callaway, L. K., O’Callaghan, M. J., Williams, G. M., Najman, J. M., Alati, R., & Lawlor, D. A. (2011). Associations of maternal prepregnancy obesity and excess pregnancy weight gains with adverse pregnancy outcomes and length of hospital stay. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 11(1), 62.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Nohr, E. A., Vaeth, M., Baker, J. L., Sorensen, T. A., Olsen, J., & Rasmussen, K. M. (2008). Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 170–1759.Google Scholar
- 18.Hauff, L. E., Leonard, S. A., & Rasmussen, K. M. (2014). Associations of maternal obesity and psychosocial factors with breastfeeding intention, initiation, and duration. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ajcn-071191.Google Scholar
- 19.Baker, P., Keck, C., Mott, F., & Quinlan, S. (1993). NLSY child handbook: A guide to the NLSY child data. Columbus: Center for Human Resource Research, Ohio State University.Google Scholar
- 20.Wu, L. L., & Allen Li, J. C. (2005). Children of the NLSY79: A unique data resource. Monthly Labor Review, 128, 59–62.Google Scholar
- 23.American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2000). Fetal macrosomia. ACOG Practice Bulletin 22. Washington (DC): ACOG, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
- 31.Rees, D. I., & Sabia, J. J. (2009). The effect of breastfeeding on educational attainment: Evidence from sibling data. University of Colorado Working Paper No. 09-03.Google Scholar
- 32.Cesur, R., & Kelly, I. R. (2010). From cradle to classroom: high birth weight and cognitive outcomes. Forum for Health Economics & Policy (Vol. 13, No. 2).Google Scholar