The Influence of Women’s Empowerment on Child Immunization Coverage in Low, Lower-Middle, and Upper-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Literature
- 737 Downloads
An estimated 1.5 million children under five die annually from vaccine preventable diseases, and 17 % of these deaths can be averted with vaccination. Predictors of immunization coverage, such as maternal schooling, are well documented; yet, preventable under-five mortality persists. To understand these patterns, researchers are exploring the mother–child relationship through an empowerment framework. This systematic review assesses evidence of the relationship between women’s agency as a component of empowerment and vaccine completion among children <5 years in lower-income countries.
We searched in Socindex, Pubmed, Web of Science and Women’s Studies International for peer-reviewed articles focused on two measures of women’s agency—decision-making and freedom of movement—and child vaccination. Our initial search identified 406 articles and abstracts for screening; 12 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
A majority (83 %) of studies revealed at least one positive association of measures for women’s agency with immunization coverage. These relationships varied by geographic location, and most studies focused on women’s decision making rather than freedom of movement. No included study came from Latin America or the Middle East.
Overall, women’s agency, typically measured by decision-making, was positively associated with the odds of complete childhood immunizations. Yet, the concept of agency was inconsistently defined and operationalized. Future research should address these inconsistencies and focus on under-represented geographic regions including Latin America and the Middle East.
KeywordsChild immunization Vaccine coverage Vaccine preventable diseases Women’s agency Women’s empowerment
This paper was developed in collaboration with a group of mentors and colleagues who the principal researcher would like to acknowledge and thank for their contributions. The authors acknowledge Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, and the Hubert Department of Global Health for its continuous support in the advancement of global health research and public health professionals. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect those of Emory University Rollins School of Public Health.
- 1.Harris, J., Gacic-Dobo, M., Eggers, R., Brown, D., & Sodha, S. (2014). Global immunization data (pp. 1–4). Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- 2.Harahap, J. (2000). Factors affecting childhood immunization in North Sumatra Province, Indonesia (pp. 1–63). Master of Arts Thesis, Mahidol University.Google Scholar
- 3.World Health Organization (WHO). (2011). Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011–2020 (NLM classification: WA 115). Geneva: WHO Press. http://cdrwww.who.int/immunization/global_vaccine_action_plan/GVAP_doc_2011_2020/en/.
- 8.Chowdhury, A. M., Bhuiya, A., Mahmud, S., Abdus Salam, A. K., et al. (2003). Immunization divide: Who do get vaccinated in Bangladesh? Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 21(3), 193–204.Google Scholar
- 14.Jamil, K., Buhiya, A., Streatfield, K., & Chakrabarty, N. (2005). The immunization program in Bangladesh: Impressive gains in coverage, but gaps remain. Health Policy and Planning, 1(14), 49–58.Google Scholar
- 20.Mahapatro, S. R. (2012). Utilization of Maternal and child health care services in India: Does women’s autonomy matter? The Journal of Family Welfare, 58(1), 22–33.Google Scholar
- 29.Upadhyay, U. D. & Karasek, D. (2010). Women‘s empowerment and achievement of desired fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa (DHS Working Papers No. 80). Calverton, Maryland, USA: ICF Macro.Google Scholar