Factors Associated with Bed-Sharing for African American and White Mothers in Wisconsin


Mother-infant bed-sharing has been associated with a higher risk of sleep-related infant deaths, which affects African Americans at a disproportionately higher rate. Although “separate but proximate sleep surfaces” for infants has been recommended since 2005, bed-sharing remains a common practice, especially among African Americans. This study examined factors associated with bed-sharing among African American and White mothers. Separate logistic regression models were constructed for African American and White respondents to the 2007–2010 Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System. The sample consisted of 806 African Americans and 1,680 Whites (N = 2,486). A significantly larger proportion of African Americans (70.6 %) reported bed-sharing than Whites (53.4 %). For both races, partner-related stress was significantly associated with bed-sharing; no significant differences were found between the two racial groups. For African Americans, partner stress (OR 1.8: 1.2–2.6) and maternal education of 13–15 years (OR 2.0: 1.2–3.4) or ≥16 years (OR 2.7: 1.1–6.3) was associated with increased odds of bed-sharing. For Whites, partner stress (OR 1.3: 1–1.8), breastfeeding (OR 2.5: 1.9–3.1), income of $35,000–$49,999 (OR 1.6: 1.2–2.3), being unmarried (OR 1.5: 1.1–2.2), needing money for food (OR 1.6: 1.1–2.3), and non-supine sleep (OR 1.8: 1.2–2.6) were associated with increased odds of bed-sharing. Differences were found in bed-sharing factors between racial groups which suggests a need for culturally-relevant, tailored safe infant sleep interventions. Providers should ask families about their infant’s sleeping environment and address safety issues within that environment. More research is needed on the context and reasons for bed-sharing.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Vennemann, M. M., Hense, H. W., Bajanowski, T., Blair, P. S., Complojer, C., Moon, R. Y., et al. (2012). Bed sharing and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome: Can we resolve the debate? Journal of Pediatrics, 160(1), 44–48.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Thoman, E. B. (2006). Co-sleeping, an ancient practice: Issues of the past and present, and possibilities for the future. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(6), 407–417.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E. A., Tappin, D. M., Vennemann, M. M., Smith, K., et al. (2013). Bed sharing when parents do not smoke: is there a risk of SIDS? an individual level analysis of five major case–control studies. BMJ Open, 3, e002299.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics, 128(5), 1030–1039.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Blabey, M. H., & Gessner, B. D. (2009). Infant bed-sharing practices and associated risk factors among births and infant deaths in Alaska. Public Health Reports, 124(4), 527–534.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gessner, B. D., & Porter, T. J. (2006). Bed sharing with unimpaired parents is not an important risk for sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics, 117, 990–991.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    McKenna, J. J., & McDade, T. (2005). Why babies should never sleep alone: A review of the co-sleeping controversy in relation to SIDS, bed sharing and breastfeeding. Pediatric Respiratory Review, 6(2), 134–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hauck, F. R., Herman, S. M., Donovan, M., Iyasu, S., Merrick Moore, C., Donoghue, E., et al. (2003). Sleep environment and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in an urban population: The Chicago infant mortality study. Pediatrics, 111, 1207–1214.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Fleming, P. J., Blair, P. S., Bacon, C., Bensley, D., Smith, I., & Taylor, E. T. (1996). Environment of infants during sleep and risk of the sudden infant death syndrome: Results of 1993–5 case–control study for confidential inquiry into stillbirths and deaths in infancy. British Medical Journal, 313(7051), 191–195.

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Bergman, A. B. (2013). Bed sharing per se is not dangerous [editorial]. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(11), 998–999.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Blair, P. S., Sidebotham, P., Evason-Coombe, C., Edmonds, M., Heckstall-Smith, E. M. A., & Fleming, P. (2009). Hazardous co sleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: Case–control study of SIDS in south west england. British Medical Journal, 339, b3666.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Ball, H. L., & Volpe, L. E. (2013). Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk reduction and infant sleep location—moving the discussion forward. Social Science and Medicine, 79, 84–91.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    American Academy of Pediatrics. (2005). The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): Diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics, 116(5), 1245–1255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2007). Curriculum for nurses: Continuing education program on SIDS risk reduction. Washington: US Government Printing Office. Report No.: 06-6005.

  15. 15.

    Colson E. R., Willinger M, Rybin D, Heeren T, Smith L. A., Lister G, et al. (2013). Trends and factors associated with infant bed sharing, 1993–2010: The national infant sleep position study. JAMA Pediatrics.

  16. 16.

    Broussard, D. L., Sappenfield, W. M., & Goodman, D. A. (2012). The black and white of infant back sleeping and infant bed sharing in Florida, 2004–2005. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(3), 713–724.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Blair, P. S., Heron, J., & Fleming, P. J. (2010). Relationship between bed sharing and breastfeeding: Longitudinal, population-based analyses. Pediatrics, 126, e1119–e1126.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Fu, L. Y., Moon, R. Y., & Hauck, F. R. (2010). Bed sharing among black infants and sudden infant death syndrome: Interaction with other known risk factors. Academic Pediatrics, 10(6), 376–382.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Fu, L. Y., Colson, E. R., Corwin, M. J., & Moon, R. Y. (2008). Infant sleep location: Associated maternal and infant characteristics with sudden infant death syndrome prevention recommendations. Journal of Pediatrics, 153(4), 503–508.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Hauck, F. R., Signore, C., Fein, S. B., & Raju, T. N. (2008). Infant sleeping arrangements and practices during the first year of life. Pediatrics, 122(2), S113.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Lahr, M. B., Rosenberg, K. D., & Lapidus, J. A. (2007). Maternal-infant bedsharing: Risk factors for bedsharing in a population-based survey of new mothers and implications for SIDS risk reduction. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 11(3), 277–286.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Shields, L. B., Hunsaker, D. M., Muldoon, S., Corey, T. C., & Spivack, B. S. (2005). Risk factors associated with sudden unexplained infant death: A prospective study of infant care practices in kentucky. Pediatrics, 116, e13–e20.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    McCoy, R. C., Hunt, C. E., Lesko, S. M., et al. (2004). Frequency of bed sharing and its relationship to breastfeeding. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 25(3), 141–149.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Brenner, R. A., Simons-Morton, B. G., Bhaskar, B., Revenis, M., Das, A., & Clemens, J. D. (2003). Infant-parent bed sharing in an inner-city population. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 33–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Willinger, M., Ko, C. W., Hoffman, H. J., Kessler, R. C., & Corwin, M. J. (2003). Trends in infant bed sharing in the United States, 1993–2000. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 43–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    CPONDER data query system [Internet]. (2013). http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/cPONDER/default.aspx?page=DisplayAllStates&state=0&year=9&category=23&variable=73.

  27. 27.

    MacDorman M. F., Hoyert D. L., Mathews T. J. (2013). Recent declines in infant mortality in the United States, 2005–2011. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief. p. 120.

  28. 28.

    Carlberg, M. M., Shapiro-Mendoza, C. K., & Goodman, M. (2012). Maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed in US infants. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16, 1594–1601.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Shapiro-Mendoza, C. K., Kimball, M., Tomashek, K. M., Anderson, R. N., & Blanding, S. (2009). US infant mortality trends attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed from 1984 through 2004: Are rates increasing? Pediatrics, 123, 533–539.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Hogan, C. (2014). Socioeconomic factors affecting infant sleep-related deaths in st. louis. Public Health Nursing, 31(1), 10–18.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Mathews T. J., MacDorman M. F. (2013). Infant mortality statistics from the 2009 period linked Birth/Infant death data set. National Vital Statisics Reports. 61(8).

  32. 32.

    Ball, H. L., Moya, E., Fairley, L., Westman, J., Oddie, S., & Wright, J. (2012). Bed- and sofa-sharing practices in a UK bi ethnic population. Pediatrics, 129(3), e673–e681.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Resnicow, K., Baranowski, T., Ahluwahalia, J. S., & Braithwite, R. L. (1999). Cultural sensitivity in public health: Defined and demystified. Ethnicity and Disease, 9(1), 10–21.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Spong, C. Y., Iams, J., Goldenberg, R., Hauck, F. R., & Willinger, M. (2011). Disparities in perinatal medicine: Preterm birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 117(4), 948–955.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Johnston, J., & Johnston, E. A. (2008). On bed sharing. Journal of Obstetric Gynecological and Neonatal Nursing, 37(6), 619–621.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    McKenna J. J., Gettler L. T. (2008). Cultural influences on infant and childhood sleep biology, and the science that studies it: Toward a more inclusive paradigm II. In: Marcus C. L., Carroll J. L., Donnelly D. F., Loughlin G. M., (Eds.). Sleep in children, second edition: Developmental changes in sleep patterns. New York: Informa Healthcare. pp. 183–221.

  37. 37.

    Horsley, T., Clifford, T., Barrowman, N., Bennet, S., Yazdi, F., Sampson, M., et al. (2007). Benefits and harms associated with the practice of bed sharing: A systematic review. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(3), 237–245.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Baddock, S. A., Galland, B. C., Bolton, D. P., Williams, S. M., & Taylor, B. J. (2006). Differences in infant and parent behaviors during routine bed sharing compared with cot sleeping in the home setting. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1599–1607.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Weimer, S. M., Dise, T. L., Evers, P. B., Ortiz, M. A., Welldaregay, W., & Steinmann, W. C. (2002). Prevalence, predictors, and attitudes toward cosleeping in an urban pediatric center. Clinical Pediatrics, 41(6), 433–438.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Norton, P. J., & Grellner, K. W. (2011). A retrospective study on infant bed-sharing in a clinical practice population. Maternal Child Health Journal, 15(4), 507–513.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Glenn, L. L., & Quillin, S. I. (2007). Opposing effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic status on neonatal feeding method, place of sleep, and maternal sleep time. Journal of Perinatal Neonatal Nursing, 21(2), 165–172.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Morgan, S. K., & Johnson, C. M. (2001). Infant sleep: Resident recommendations and socioeconomic status differences in patient practices. Family Medicine, 33(7), 614–620.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Wisconsin interactive statistics on health (WISH) data query system [Internet]. http://wish.wisconsin.gov/.

  44. 44.

    Department of Health & Human Services. (2013). Healthy people 2020.

  45. 45.

    Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system, home [Internet]. (2012). www.cdc.gov/PRAMS/index.htm.

  46. 46.

    Adams, M. M., Shulman, H. B., Bruce, C., Hogue, C. R., & Brogan, D. (1991). The pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system: Design, questionnaire, data collection and response rates. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 5(3), 333–346.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division of Public Health. (2011). Wisconsin PRAMS 2007 and 2008 datasets:  information for researchers. Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division of Public Health.

  48. 48.

    Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division of Public Health. (2011). Wisconsin PRAMS 2009 and 2010 datasets:  information for researchers. Wisconsin Department of Health Services, Division of Public Health.

  49. 49.

    Stokols, D. (1996). Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10(4), 282–298.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Thomas, S. B., Quinn, S. C., Butler, J., Fryer, C. S., & Garza, M. A. (2011). Toward a fourth generation of disparities research to achieve health equity. Annual Reviews in Public Health, 32, 399–416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Smedley, B. D., & Syme, S. L. (2000). Intervention strategies from social and behavioral research. Washington: National Academy Press.

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Campbell, M. K., & Quintiliani, L. M. (2006). Tailored interventions in public health: Where does tailoring fit in interventions to reduce health disparities? American Behavioral Scientist, 49(6), 1–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Kleinbaum D. G., Klein M. (2010). Logistic regression: A self-learning text. Third Edition ed. New York: Springer.

  54. 54.

    Warner, R. M. (2008). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Joyner, B. L., Oden, R. P., Ajao, T. I., & Moon, R. Y. (2010). Where should my baby sleep: A qualitative study of African American infant sleep location decisions. Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(10), 881–889.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Ateah, C. A., & Hamelin, K. J. (2008). Maternal bedsharing practices, experiences, and awareness of risks. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 37(3), 274–281.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Tikotzky, L., Sadeh, A., & Glickman-Gavrieli, T. (2011). Infant sleep and paternal involvement in infant caregiving during the first 6 months of life. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(1), 36–46.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Lu, M. C., Jones, L., Bond, M. J., Wright, K., Pumpuang, M., Maidenberg, M., et al. (2010). Where is the F in MCH? father involvement in african american families. Ethnicity and Disease, 20(Suppl 2), S2-49–S2-61.

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Carr, D., & Springer, K. W. (2010). Advances in families and health research in the 21st century. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 743–761.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Alio, A. P., Salihu, H. M., Kornosky, J. L., Richman, A. M., & Marty, P. J. (2010). Feto-infant health and survival: Does paternal involvement matter? Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14(6), 931–937.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Ramos, K. D. (2002). The complexity of parent-child cosleeping: Researching cultural beliefs. Mothering, 114, 48–51.

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Lee, K. A., & Gay, C. L. (2011). Can modifications to the bedroom environment improve the sleep of new parents? two randomized clinical trials. Research in Nursing and Health, 34(1), 7–19.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Galler, J. R., Harrison, R. H., & Ramsey, F. (2006). Bed-sharing, breastfeeding, and maternal moods in barbados. Infant Behavior and Development, 29, 526–534.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Blair, P. S., & Ball, H. L. (2004). The prevalence and characteristics associated with parent-infant bed-sharing in England. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 89, 1106–1110.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    PRAMS data on breastfeeding [Internet]. (2011). http://www.cdc.gov/prams/DATA-Breastfeeding.htm.

  66. 66.

    Lewallen, L. P., & Street, D. J. (2010). Initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African American women. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 39(6), 667–674.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Scanlon, K. S., Grummer-Strawn, L. M., Li, R., Chen, J., Molinari, N., & Perrine, C. G. (2010). Racial and ethnic differences in breastfeeding initiation and duration, by state—national immunization survey, United States, 2004–2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(11), 327–334.

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Kogan, M. D., Singh, G. K., Dee, D. L., Belanoff, C., & Grummer-Strawn, L. M. (2008). Multivariate analysis of state variation in breastfeeding rates in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1872–1880.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Huang Y, Hauck F. R., Signore C, Yu A, Raju T. N. K., Huang T. T. K., et al. (2013).Influence of bedsharing activity on breastfeeding duration among US mothers. JAMA Pediatrics.

  70. 70.

    Vennemann, M. M., Bajanowski, T., Brinkmann, B., Jorch, G., Yucesan, K., Sauerland, C., et al. (2009). Does breastfeeding reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? Pediatrics, 123, e406–e410.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Hauck, F. R., Thompson, J. M. D., Tanabe, K. O., Moon, R. Y., & Vennemann, M. M. (2010). Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 128(103), 103–110.

    Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Moon, R. Y., & Fu, L. Y. (2012). Sudden infant death syndrome: An update. Pediatrics in Review, 33(7), 314–320.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. (2008). ABM clinical protocol #6: Guideline on co-sleeping and breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine. 3(1).

  74. 74.

    Should I sleep with my baby? [Internet]. (2007). http://www.llli.org/FAQ/cosleep.html.

  75. 75.

    McKenna, J. J., Mosko, S., & Richard, C. A. (1997). Bedsharing promotes breastfeeding. Pediatrics, 100, 214–219.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Culver E. (2008). Exploring bed-sharing mothers’ motives and decision making for getting through the night intact: A grounded theory.[dissertation]. Marywood University.

  77. 77.

    Gettler, L. T., & McKenna, J. J. (2011). Evolutionary perspectives on mother–infant sleep proximity and breastfeeding in a laboratory setting. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144(3), 454–462.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Kendall-Tackett, K., Cong, Z., & Hale, T. W. (2010). Mother-infant sleep locations and nighttime feeding behavior: US data from the survey of mothers’ sleep and fatigue. Clinical Lactation, 1, 27–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Mollborg, P., Wennergren, G., Norvenius, S. G., & Alm, B. (2011). Bed-sharing among six-month-old infants in western Sweden. Acta Paediatrica, 100(2), 226–230.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    American Academy of Pediatrics. (2000). Changing concepts of sudden infant death syndrome: Implications for infant sleeping environment and sleep position. Pediatrics, 105, 650–656.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    American Academy of Pediatrics. (1997). Does bed sharing affect the risk of SIDS? Pediatrics, 100(2), 272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    American Academy of Pediatrics. (1992). Positioning and SIDS. Pediatrics, 39, 1120.

    Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Back to sleep education campaign [Internet]. (1994). http://www.nichd.nih.gov/sids/.

  84. 84.

    Volpe, L. E., Ball, H. L., & McKenna, J. J. (1982). Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants. Social Science and Medicine, 2013(79), 92–100.

    Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Moon, R. Y., Oden, R. P., Joyner, B. L., & Ajao, T. I. (2010). Qualitative analysis of beliefs and perceptions about sudden infant death syndrome in African-American mothers: Implications for safe sleep recommendations. The Journal of Pediatrics, 157, 92–97.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Chianese, J., Ploof, D., Trovato, C., & Chang, J. C. (2009). Inner-city caregivers’ perspectives on bed sharing with their infants. Academic Pediatrics, 9(1), 26–32.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Jenni, O. G., & O’Connor, B. B. (2005). Children’s sleep: An interplay between culture and biology. Pediatrics, 115(Supp 1), 204–216.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Ball, H. L. (2002). Reasons to bed-share: Why parents sleep with their infants. Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 20(4), 207–221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Hooker, E., Ball, H. L., & Kelly, P. J. (2001). Sleeping like a baby: Attitudes and experiences of bedsharing in northeast England. Medical Anthropology, 19(3), 203–222.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Gurbutt, D., & Gurbutt, R. (2007). Risk reduction and sudden infant death syndrome. Community Practitioner, 80(1), 24–27.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs. (2014). Connecting the dots to improve birth outcomes: Key considerations and recommendations from a national meeting Washington. DC: Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs.

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Ahluwalia, I. B., Merritt, R., Beck, L. F., & Rogers, M. (2001). Multiple lifestyle and psychological risks and delivery of small for gestational age infants. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 97(5), 649–656.

Download references


We gratefully acknowledge Mary K. Madsen, PhD, RN; Ron A. Cisler, PhD; Jennifer Doering, PhD, RN; Paul Florsheim, PhD; the Center for Urban Population Health; a Dissertation Grant from the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee College of Health Sciences; and statistical support from the Statistical Consulting Center at the University of Georgia. Wisconsin Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data were collected and provided by the PRAMS Project in the Division of Public Health, Wisconsin Department of Health Services. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Cooperative Agreement grant number UR6/DP000492 provided funding to WDHS for data collection and some staff support. The PRAMS Working Group is also acknowledged.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Trina C. Salm Ward.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Salm Ward, T.C., Ngui, E.M. Factors Associated with Bed-Sharing for African American and White Mothers in Wisconsin. Matern Child Health J 19, 720–732 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-014-1545-5

Download citation


  • Bed-sharing
  • Co-sleeping
  • Infant sleep
  • Racial disparities