Advertisement

Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 391–400 | Cite as

Effect of Previous Miscarriage on Depressive Symptoms During Subsequent Pregnancy and Postpartum in the First Baby Study

  • Cara Bicking Kinsey
  • Kesha Baptiste-Roberts
  • Junjia Zhu
  • Kristen H. Kjerulff
Article

Abstract

Our objective was to test the hypothesis that nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage have an increased risk of depression during late pregnancy, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum compared to women without a history of miscarriage. We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the First Baby Study, and compared 448 pregnant women with a history of miscarriage to 2,343 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage on risk of probable depression (score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios at each time point and generalized estimating equations were used to obtain estimates in longitudinal analysis. Women with a history of miscarriage were not more likely than woman without a history of miscarriage to score in the probable depression range during the third trimester or at 6 or 12 months postpartum but were more likely at 1 month postpartum, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.03–2.69). Women with a history of miscarriage may be more vulnerable to depression during the first month postpartum than women without prior miscarriage, but this effect does not appear to persist beyond this time period. We support the promotion of awareness surrounding this issue and recommend that research is planned to identify risk factors that may position a woman with a history of miscarriage to be at higher risk for depression.

Keywords

Perinatal loss Perinatal depression Pregnancy Postpartum depression Miscarriage 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (R01 HD052990). KHK is the principal investigator for this award. CBK was also supported by a fellowship from the National Institute for Nursing Research (F31 NR013303) and by the Eastern Nursing Research Society and the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science.

References

  1. 1.
    Zegers-Hochschild, F., Adamson, G., de Mouzon, J., Ishihara, O., Mansour, R., Nygren, K., et al. (2009). International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (ICMART) and the World Health Organization (WHO) revised glossary of ART terminology, 2009. Fertility and Sterility, 92(5), 1520–1524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brier, N. (2008). Grief following miscarriage: A comprehensive review of the literature. Journal of Women’s Health, 17(3), 451–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scotchie, J., & Fritz, M. (2006). Early pregnancy loss. Postgraduate Obstetrics and Gynecology, 26(9), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cuisinier, M., Janssen, H., de Graauw, C., Bakker, S., & Hoogduin, C. (1996). Pregnancy following miscarriage: Course of grief and some determining factors. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 17, 168–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Armstrong, D. (2002). Emotional distress and prenatal attachment in pregnancy after perinatal loss. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 34(4), 339–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Franche, R., & Mikail, S. (1999). The impact of perinatal loss on adjustment to subsequent pregnancy. Social Science Medicine, 48(11), 1613–1623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lamb, E. H. (2002). The impact of previous perinatal loss on subsequent pregnancy and parenting. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 11(2), 33–40.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Armstrong, D. (2004). Impact of prior perinatal loss on subsequent pregnancies. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 33(6), 765–773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blackmore, E. R., Cote-Arsenault, D., Tang, W., Glover, V., Evans, J., Golding, J., et al. (2011). Previous prenatal loss as a predictor of perinatal depression and anxiety. British Journal of Psychiatry, 198(5), 373–378.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yilmaz, S. D., & Beji, N. K. (2013). Effects of perinatal loss on current pregnancy in Turkey. Midwifery, 29(11), 1272–1277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gong, X., Hao, J., Tao, F., Zhang, J., Wang, H., & Xu, R. (2013). Pregnancy loss and anxiety and depression during subsequent pregnancies: Data from the C-ABC study. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, 166(1), 30–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hughes, P., Turton, P., & Evans, C. D. (1999). Stillbirth as risk factor for depression and anxiety in the subsequent pregnancy: Cohort study. BMJ, 318(7200), 1721–1724.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Couto, E. R., Couto, E., Vian, B., Gregorio, Z., Nomura, M. L., Zaccaria, R., et al. (2009). Quality of life, depression and anxiety among pregnant women with previous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 127(4), 185–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cote-Arsenault, D. (2007). Threat appraisal, coping, and emotions across pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss. Nursing Research, 56(2), 108–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cote-Arsenault, D., Bidlack, D., & Humm, A. (2001). Women’s emotions and concerns during pregnancy following perinatal loss. MCN: American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 26(3), 128–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Armstrong, D. (2007). Perinatal loss and parental distress after the birth of a healthy infant. Advances in Neonatal Care, 7(4), 200–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gaudet, C., Sejourne, N., Camborieux, L., Rogers, R., & Chabrol, H. (2010). Pregnancy after perinatal loss: Association of grief, anxiety, and attachment. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 28(3), 240–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Theut, S. K., Pedersen, F. A., Zaslow, M. J., & Rabinovich, B. A. (1988). Pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss: Parental anxiety and depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(3), 289–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hutti, M. H., Armstrong, D. S., & Myers, J. (2011). Healthcare utilization in the pregnancy following a perinatal loss. MCN: American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 36(2), 104–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wheeler, S. R., & Austin, J. (2000). The loss response list: A tool for measuring adolescent grief responses. Death Studies, 24(1), 21–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bergner, A., Beyer, R., Klapp, B. F., & Rauchfuss, M. (2008). Pregnancy after early pregnancy loss: A prospective study of anxiety, depressive symptomatology and coping. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 29(2), 105–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marcinko, V. M., Marcinko, D., Dordevic, V., & Oreskovic, S. (2011). Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with previous history of spontaneous abortion. Collegium Antropologicum, 35(Suppl 1), 225–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hamama, L., Rauch, S. A., Sperlich, M., Defever, E., & Seng, J. S. (2010). Previous experience of spontaneous or elective abortion and risk for posttraumatic stress and depression during subsequent pregnancy. Depression and Anxiety, 27(8), 699–707.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Armstrong, D., Hutti, M., & Myers, J. (2009). The influence of prior perinatal loss on parents’ psychological distress after the birth of a subsequent healthy infant. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 38, 654–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Grote, N. K., Bridge, J. A., Gavin, A. R., Melville, J. L., Iyengar, S., & Katon, W. J. (2010). A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(10), 1012–1024.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Diego, M. A., Jones, N. A., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C., et al. (2006). Maternal psychological distress, prenatal cortisol, and fetal weight. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(5), 747–753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    APA. (2010). American Psychiatric Association DSM-V Development. http://www.dsm5.org/Pages/Default.aspx.
  28. 28.
    Beck, C. T. (2002). Postpartum depression: A metasynthesis. Qualitative Health Research, 12(4), 453–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M. H., Connell, A. M., Broth, M. R., Hall, C. M., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14(1), 1–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (1999). Chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms, maternal sensitivity, and child functioning at 36 months. Developmental Psychology, 35(5), 1297–1310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kjerulff, K. H., Velott, D. L., Zhu, J., Chuang, C. H., Hillemeier, M. M., Paul, I. M., et al. (2013). Mode of first delivery and women’s intentions for subsequent childbearing: Findings from the First Baby Study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 27(1), 62–71.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bicking Kinsey, C., Baptiste-Roberts, K., Zhu, J., & Kjerulff, K. (2013). Effect of previous miscarriage on the maternal birth experience in the First Baby Study. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 42(4), 442–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Misra, D. P., O’Campo, P., & Strobino, D. (2001). Testing a sociomedical model for preterm delivery. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 15(2), 110–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sherbourne, C. D., & Stewart, A. L. (1991). The MOS social support survey. Social Science and Medicine, 32(6), 705–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 150(6), 782–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gibson, J., McKenzie-McHarg, K., Shakespeare, J., Price, J., & Gray, R. (2009). A systematic review of studies validating the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in antepartum and postpartum women. Acta Psychiatrica Scand., 119(5), 350–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carrera, L., Diez-Domingo, J., Montanana, V., Monleon Sancho, J., Minguez, J., & Monleon, J. (1998). Depression in women suffering perinatal loss. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 62(2), 149–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Price, S. (2008). Stepping back to gain perspective: Pregnancy loss history, depression, and parenting capacity in the early childhood longitudinal study, birth cohort (ECLS-B). Death Studies, 32(2), 97–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Le Strat, Y., Dubertret, C., & Le Foll, B. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of major depressive episode in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. Journal of Affective Disorders, 135(1–3), 128–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Witt, W. P., DeLeire, T., Hagen, E. W., Wichmann, M. A., Wisk, L. E., Spear, H. A., et al. (2010). The prevalence and determinants of antepartum mental health problems among women in the USA: A nationally representative population-based study. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 13(5), 425–437.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Witt, W. P., Wisk, L. E., Cheng, E. R., Hampton, J. M., Creswell, P. D., Hagen, E. W., et al. (2011). Poor prepregnancy and antepartum mental health predicts postpartum mental health problems among US women: A nationally representative population-based study. Womens Health Issues, 21(4), 304–313.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Edhborg, M., Nasreen, H. E., & Kabir, Z. N. (2011). Impact of postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on mothers’ emotional tie to their infants 2–3 months postpartum: A population-based study from rural Bangladesh. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 14(4), 307–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Taylor, A., Atkins, R., Kumar, R., Adams, D., & Glover, V. (2005). A new Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale: Links with early maternal mood. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 8(1), 45–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reck, C., Klier, C., Pabst, K., Stehle, E., Steffenelli, U., Struben, K., et al. (2006). The German version of the Postpartum Bonding Instrument: Psychometric properties and association with postpartum depression. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 9, 265–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Moehler, E., Brunner, R., Wiebel, A., Reck, C., & Resch, F. (2006). Maternal depressive symptoms in the postnatal period are associated with long-term impairment of mother–child bonding. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 9(5), 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Siu, B. W., Ip, P., Chow, H. M., Kwok, S. S., Li, O. L., Koo, M. L., et al. (2010). Impairment of mother–infant relationship: Validation of the Chinese version of Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(3), 174–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Edhborg, M., & Lundh, W. (2005). Some early indicators for depressive symptoms and bonding 2 months postpartum—A study of new mothers and fathers. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 8(4), 221–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Deave, T., Heron, J., Evans, J., & Emond, A. (2008). The impact of maternal depression in pregnancy on early child development. BJOG, 115(8), 1043–1051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Diego, M. A., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Cullen, C., Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (2004). Prepartum, postpartum, and chronic depression effects on newborns. Psychiatry, 67(1), 63–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Field, T., Diego, M., & Hernandez-Reif, M. (2009). Depressed mothers’ infants are less responsive to faces and voices. Infant Behavior and Development, 32(3), 239–244.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Luoma, I., Kaukonen, P., Mantymaa, M., Puura, K., Tamminen, T., & Salmelin, R. (2004). A longitudinal study of maternal depressive symptoms, negative expectations and perceptions of child problems. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 35(1), 37–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Luoma, I., Tamminen, T., Kaukonen, P., Laippala, P., Puura, K., Salmelin, R., et al. (2001). Longitudinal study of maternal depressive symptoms and child well-being. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(12), 1367–1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Milgrom, J., Westley, D. T., & McCloud, P. I. (1995). Do infants of depressed mothers cry more than other infants? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 31(3), 218–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    O’Connor, T. G., Caprariello, P., Blackmore, E. R., Gregory, A. M., Glover, V., & Fleming, P. (2007). Prenatal mood disturbance predicts sleep problems in infancy and toddlerhood. Early Human Development, 83(7), 451–458.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cara Bicking Kinsey
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kesha Baptiste-Roberts
    • 1
    • 2
  • Junjia Zhu
    • 2
  • Kristen H. Kjerulff
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.College of NursingThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Public Health ScienceThe Pennsylvania State University College of MedicineHersheyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyThe Pennsylvania State University College of MedicineHersheyUSA

Personalised recommendations