Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Relations with Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension, and Birth Outcomes
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To study the relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes, with a focus on gestational diabetes and hypertension and their role in the association with fetal growth. We studied 1,884 mothers and offspring from the Eden mother–child cohort. Weight before pregnancy (W1) and weight after delivery (W2) were collected and we calculated BMI and net gestational weight gain (netGWG = (W2 − W1)/(weeks of gestation)). Gestational diabetes, hypertension gestational age and birth weight were collected. We used multivariate linear or logistic models to study the association between BMI, netGWG and pregnancy and birth outcomes, adjusting for center, maternal age and height, parity and average number of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy. High BMI was more strongly related to the risk of giving birth to a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) baby than high netGWG (odds ratio OR [95% CI] of 3.23 [1.86–5.60] and 1.61 [0.91–2.85], respectively). However, after excluding mothers with gestational diabetes or hypertension the ORs for LGA, respectively weakened (OR 2.57 [1.29–5.13]) for obese women and strengthened for high netGWG (OR 2.08 [1.14–3.80]). Low in comparison to normal netGWG had an OR of 2.18 [1.20–3.99] for pre-term birth, which became stronger after accounting for blood pressure and glucose disorders (OR 2.70 [1.37–5.34]). Higher net gestational weight gain was significantly associated with an increased risk of LGA only after accounting for blood pressure and glucose disorders. High gestational weight gain should not be neglected in regard to risk of LGA in women without apparent risk factors.
KeywordsObesity Pregnancy Gestational diabetes Hypertension Birth weight
We are indebted to the participating families and to the midwife research assistants for data collection. We acknowledge all the funding sources for the EDEN study: Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM), French Ministry of Research: IFR and Cohort program, INSERM Nutrition Research Program, French Ministry of Health Perinatality Program, French Agency for Environment Security (AFFSET), French National Institute for Population Health Surveillance (INVS), Paris–Sud University, French National Institute for Health Education (INPES), Nestlé, Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale (MGEN), French speaking association for the study of diabetes and metabolism (Alfediam), National Agency for Research (ANR non thematic program), National Institute for Research in Public Health (IRESP: TGIR cohorte santé 2008 program).
Conflict of interest
Authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
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