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Table 2 Maternal characteristics for infants with major birth defects by gestational age (very preterm and moderately preterm vs. term), and the prevalence ratio comparing the contribution of birth defects to very preterm and moderately preterm births compared to the contribution of birth defects to term births, 13 states,a 1995–2000b

From: The Association Between Major Birth Defects and Preterm Birth

Characteristics
 
Prevalence of birth defects among infants (per 100 live births) Prevalence and unadjusted prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval)
Very pretermc Moderately pretermd Terme Very pretermc Moderately pretermd
Maternal race
    Non-Hispanic White 14.17 5.79 2.44 5.81 5.54–6.09 2.37 2.30–2.45
    Non-Hispanic Black 12.97 5.78 2.91 4.45 4.30–4.61 1.98 1.93–2.04
    Hispanic 18.70 7.63 3.28 5.71 5.56–5.86 2.33 2.29–2.37
Mother’s age
    13–24 years 15.35 6.43 2.94 5.23 5.08–5.38 2.19 2.15–2.23
    25–34 years 15.35 6.56 2.89 5.32 5.17–5.57 2.27 2.23–2.31
    ≥35 years 16.38 7.64 3.29 4.98 4.75–5.23 2.32 2.25–2.40
Maternal education
    <12 years 15.02 6.34 2.93 5.13 4.95–5.32 2.17 2.12–2.22
    12 years 15.67 6.87 3.00 5.22 5.06–5.39 2.29 2.24–2.34
    >12 years 16.57 6.90 3.00 5.52 5.36–5.69 2.30 2.25–2.34
Previous live births
      None 92.09 37.12 17.31 5.32 5.17–5.47 2.14 2.10–2.18
    Yes (1 or more) 8.82 3.97 1.81 4.88 4.75–5.00 2.20 2.16–2.23
Trimester prenatal care began
    1st trimester 15.38 6.62 2.90 5.30 5.19–5.42 2.28 2.25–2.31
    2nd trimester 16.53 6.82 3.13 5.28 5.02–5.55 2.18 2.11–2.25
    3rd trimester 10.40 6.19 3.21 3.24 2.66–3.94 1.93 1.79–2.07
    No prenatal care 15.62 6.95 3.26 4.79 4.55–5.04 2.13 2.04–2.22
Method of delivery
    Vaginal 13.62 5.30 2.53 5.39 5.24–5.54 2.10 2.06–2.13
    VBACf 14.97 5.46 2.55 5.87 5.15–6.69 2.14 1.97–2.33
    Primary C-section 16.52 9.83 4.28 3.86 3.75–3.98 2.30 2.24–2.36
    Repeat C-section 15.49 7.49 3.38 4.58 4.31–4.88 2.22 2.13–2.31
  1. aCombined data from: Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Texas, and West Virginia
  2. bAll states included data for 1995–2000 except Kentucky, Rhode Island (1998–2000), and Texas (1996–2000)
  3. cVery Preterm is defined as births of 24 through 31 weeks gestation
  4. dModerately Preterm is defined as births of 32 through 36 weeks gestation
  5. eTerm is defined as births of 37 through 41 weeks gestation
  6. fVaginal birth after C-section