Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 725–733 | Cite as

Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Diagnosis of Asthma in Offspring at Age 3 Years

Article

Abstract

Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and a diagnosis of asthma in offspring at age 3 years. Methods A population-based sample of children born in large U.S. cities in 1998–2000 was followed since birth (N = 1971). The main outcome measure was whether the mother reported at 3 years that the child had ever been diagnosed with asthma. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and child asthma diagnosis, as well as the extent to which the association can be explained by sociodemographic, medical, obstetric, and behavioral factors associated with both conditions. Results Children with obese mothers had 52% higher odds of having an asthma diagnosis by age 3 (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.18–1.93). Sociodemographic, medical, obstetric, and behavioral factors explained some, but not all, of the association. Conclusions Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with diagnosis of asthma in offspring at age 3 years. The results from this study are preliminary and need to be replicated and further explored, but are suggestive of a complex intergenerational linkage between obesity and asthma.

Keywords

Pre-pregnancy obesity Child asthma 

References

  1. 1.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Action against asthma: A strategic plan for the Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akinbami, L. J., & Schoendorf, K. C. (2002). Trends in childhood asthma: Prevalence, health care utilization, and mortality. Pediatrics, 110, 315–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aligne, A. C., Auinger, P., Byrd, R. S., & Weitzman, M. (2000). Risk factors for pediatric asthma: Contributions of poverty, race, and urban residence. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 162, 873–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weiss, K. B., Gergen, P. J., & Crain, E. F. (1992). Inner-city asthma: The epidemiology of an emerging U.S. public health concern. Chest, 101, 362S–367S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maier, W. C., Arrighi, H. M., Morray, B., Llewllyn, C., & Redding, G. J. (1998). The impact of asthma and asthma-like illness in Seattle school children. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 557–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Milton, B., Whitehead, M., Holland, P., & Hamilton, V. (2004). The social and economic consequences of childhood asthma across the life course: A systematic review. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30, 711–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Newacheck, P. W., & Halfon, N. (2000). Prevalence, impact, and trends in childhood disability due to asthma. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 154, 287–293.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Annesi-Maesano, I., Moreau, D., & Strachan, D. (2001). In utero and perinatal complications preceding asthma. Allergy, 56, 491–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Litonjua, A. A., Carey, V. J., Burge, H. A. et al. (1998). Parental history and the risk for childhood asthma: Does mother confer more risk than father? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 158, 176–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sears, M. R. (1997). Epidemiology of childhood asthma. The Lancet, 350, 1015–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cook, D. G., & Strachan, D. P. (1999). Health effects of passive smoking: Summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. Thorax, 54, 357–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gilliland, F. D., Li, Y.-F., & Peters, J. M. (2001). Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and environmental tobacco smoke on asthma and wheezing in children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 163(2), 429–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jaakkola, J. J. K., & Gissler, M. (2004). Maternal smoking in pregnancy, fetal development, and childhood asthma. American Journal of Public Health, 94(1), 136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weitzman, M., Gortmaker, S., Walker, D. K., & Sobol, A. (1990). Maternal smoking and childhood asthma. Pediatrics, 85, 505–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Calvani, M., Alessandri, C., Sopo, S. M., Panetta, V., Tripodi, S., Torre, A. et al. (2004). Infectious and uterus related complications during pregnancy and development of atopic and nonatopic asthma in children. Allergy, 59, 99–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nafstad, P., Magnus, P., & Jaakkola, J. J. K. (2000). Risk of childhood asthma and allergic rhinitis in relation to pregnancy complications. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 106, 867–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nafstad, P., Samuelsen, S. O., Irgens, L. M., & Bjerkedal, T. (2003). Pregnancy complications and the risk of asthma among Norwegians born between 1967 and 1993. European Journal of Epidemiology, 18, 755–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xu, B., Pekkanen, J., & Jarvelin, M. (2000). Obstetric complications and asthma in childhood. The Journal of Asthma, 37, 589–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xu, B., Pekkanen, J., Jarvelin, M. R., Olsen, P., & Hartikainen, A. L. (1999). Maternal infections in pregnancy and the development of asthma among offspring. International Journal of Epidemiology, 28, 723–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xu, B., Pekkanen, J., Hartikainen, A.-L., & Jarvelin, M.-R. (2001). Caesarean section and risk of asthma and allergy in adulthood. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 107(4), 732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Flaherman, V., & Rutherford, G. W. (2006). A meta-analysis of the effect of high weight on asthma. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91, 334–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leadbitter, P., Pearce, N., Cheng, S., Sears, M. R., Holdaway, D. M., Flannery, E. M. et al. (1999). Relationship between fetal growth and the development of asthma and atopy in childhood. Thorax, 54, 905–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nepomnyaschy, L., & Reichman, N. E. (2006). Low birth weight and asthma among young urban children. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1604–1610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Akinbami, L., LaFleur, B., & Schoendorf, K. C. (2002). Racial and income disparities in childhood asthma in the United States. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 2, 382–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dik, N., Tate, R. B., Manfreda, J., & Anthonisen, N. R. (2004). Risk of physician-diagnosed asthma in the first 6 years of life. Chest, 126(4), 1147–1153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rasanen, M., Kaprio, J., Laitinen, T., Winter, T., Koskenvuo, M., & Laitinen, L. A. (2000). Perinatal risk factors for asthma in Finnish adolescent twins. Thorax, 55(1), 25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gdalevich, M., Mimouni, D., & Mimouni, M. (2001). Breast-feeding and the risk of bronchial asthma in childhood: A systematic review with meta-analysis of prospective studies. The Journal of Pediatrics, 139, 261–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Oddy, W. H., & Peat, J. K. (2003). Breastfeeding, asthma, and atopic disease: An epidemiological review of the literature. Journal of Human Lactation, 19, 250–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    National Institutes of Health. (2004). Strategic Plan for NIH Obesity Research.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Curtin, L. R., McDowell, M. A., Tabak, C. J., & Flegal, K. M. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 295(13), 1549–1555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dietz, W. H. Jr., & Gortmaker, S. L. (1984). Factors within the physical environment associated with childhood obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 39(4), 619–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jackson, E. J., Doescher, M. P., Jerant A. F., & Hart, G. L. (2005). A national study of obesity prevalence and trends by type of rural county. Journal of Rural Health, 21(2), 140–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    National Institutes of Health (1998). Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: NIH Publication, No. 98-4083.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baeten, J. M., Bukusi, E. A., & Lambe, M. (2001). Pregnancy complications and outcomes among overweight and obese nulliparous women. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 436–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cedergren, M. I. (2004). Maternal morbid obesity and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 103, 219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lu, G. C., Rouse, D. J., DuBard, M., Cliver, S., Kimberlin, D., & Hauth, J. C. (2001). The effect of the increasing prevalence of maternal obesity on perinatal morbidity. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 185, 845–849.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ray, J. G., Vermeulen, M. J., Shapiro, J. L., & Kenshole, A. B. (2001). Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, and the influence of maternal obesity and weight gain: The DEPOSIT study. The Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 94, 347.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Robinson, H. E., O’Connell, C. M., Joseph, K. S., & McLeod, N. L. (2005). Maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by obesity. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106, 1357–1364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sebire, N. J., Jolly, M., Harris, J. P., Wadsworth, J., Joffe, M., Beard, R. W. et al. (2001). Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: A study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. International Journal of Obesity, 25, 1175–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vahratian, A., Zhang, J., Troendle, J. F., Savitz, D. A., & Siega-Riz, A. M. (2004). Maternal prepregnancy overweight and obesity and the pattern of labor progression in term nulliparous women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 104, 943–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weiss, J. L., Malone, F. D., Emig, D., Ball, R. H., Nyberg, D. A., Comstock, C. H. et al. (2004). Obesity, obstetric complications and cesarean delivery rate-a population-based screening study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 190, 1091–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Castro, L. C., & Avino, R. L. (2002). Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcomes. Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 14, 601–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Watkins, M. L., Rasmussen, S. A., Honein, M. A., Botto, L. D., & Moore, C. A. (2003). Maternal obesity and risk for birth defects. Pediatrics, 111, 1152–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stunkard, A. (1996). Socioeconomic status and obesity. Ciba Foundation Symposium, 201, 174–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Healton, C. G., Vallone, D., McCausland, K. L., Xiao, H., & Green, M. P. (2006). Smoking, obesity, and their co-occurrence in the United States: Cross sectional analysis. British Medical Journal, 333, 25–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rasmussen, K. M., & Kjolhede, C. L. (2004). Prepregnant overweight and obesity diminish the prolactin response to suckling in the first week postpartum. Pediatrics, 113, e465–e471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kim, S. Y., Dietz, P. M., England, L., Morrow, B., & Callaghan, W. M. (2007). Trends in pre-pregnancy obesity in nine states, 1993–2003. Obesity, 15(4), 986–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lucas, A. (1994). Role of nutritional programming in determining adult morbidity. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 71, 288–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Barker, D. (1992). Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: BMJ Publishing.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Barker, D. (1995). Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. British Medical Journal, 311, 171–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Harding, J. E. (2001). The nutritional basis of the fetal origins of adult disease. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30, 15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Armitage, J. A., Taylor, P. D., & Poston, L. (2005). Experimental models of developmental programming: Consequences of exposure to an energy rich diet during development. The Journal of Physiology, 565, 3–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Beuther, D. A., Weiss, S. T., & Sutherland, E. R. (2006). Obesity and asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 174, 112–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Camargo, C. A., Jr., Weiss, S. T., Zhang, S., Willett, W. C., & Speizer, F. E. (1999). Prospective study of body mass index, weight change, and risk of adult-onset asthma in women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159, 2582–2588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ford, E. S. (2005). The epidemiology of obesity and asthma. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115, 897–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shaheen, S. O., Sterne, J. A. C., Montgomery, S. M., & Azima, H. (1999). Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults. Thorax, 54, 396–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tantisira, K. G., & Weiss, S. T. (2001). Complex interactions in complex traits: Obesity and asthma. Thorax, 56, ii64–ii74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Reichman, N. E., Teitler, J. O., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. (2001). Fragile families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23, 303–326. http://www.fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/surveys/Reichman_et_al_2001.pdf
  59. 59.
    StataCorp (2005). Stata Statistical Software: Release 9. In. College Station, TX: StataCorp, L. P.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Center for Multilevel Modeling. (2003). MLwiN multilevel modeling. UK: University of Bristol.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention. BMI—Body Mass Index: About BMI for Children and Teens. Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    King, J. C. (2006). Maternal obesity, metabolism, and pregnancy outcomes. Annual Review of Nutrition, 26, 271–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Boney, C. M., Verma, A., Tucker, R., & Vohr, B. R. (2005). Metabolic syndrome in childhood: Association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics, 115, e290–e296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Anderson, J. L., Waller, D. K., Canfield, M. A., Shaw, G. M., Watkins, M. L., & Werler, M. M. (2005). Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, and central nervous system birth defects. Epidemiology, 16, 87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Catalano, P., & Ehrenberg, H. (2006). The short- and long-term implications of maternal obesity on the mother and her offspring. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 113, 1126–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Guler, N., Kirerleri, E., Ones, U., Tamay, Z., Salmayenli, N., & Darendeliler, F. (2004). Leptin: Does it have any role in childhood asthma? The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 114, 254–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Xu, B., Jarvelin, M. -R., Hartikainen, A. -L., & Pekkanen, J. (2000). Maternal age at menarche and atopy among offspring at the age of 31 years. Thorax, 55, 691–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hartert, T. V., Peebles, R., & Stokes, J. (2000). Epidemiology of asthma: The year in review. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 6(1), 4–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Miller, J. E. (2001). Predictors of asthma in young children: Does reporting source affect our conclusions? American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(3), 245–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Martinez, F. D., Wright, A. L., Taussig, L. M., Holberg, C. J., Halonen, M., Morgan, W. J. et al. (1995). Asthma and wheezing in the first six years of life. The New England Journal of Medicine, 332(3), 133–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Joseph, C. L. M., Foxman, B., Leickly, F. E., Peterson, E., & Ownby, D. (1996). Prevalence of possible undiagnosed asthma and associated morbidity among urban schoolchildren. Journal of Pediatr, 129(5), 735–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Akinbami, L. J., Rhodes, J. C., & Lara, M. (2005). Racial and ethnic differences in asthma diagnosis among children who wheeze. Pediatrics, 115(5), 1254–1260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Morland, K., Diez Roux, A. V., & Wing, S. (2006). Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30, 333–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Moore, L. V., & Diez Roux, A. V. (2006). Associations of neighborhood characteristics with the location and type of food stores. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 325–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rauh, V. A., Chew, G. L., & Garfinkel, R. S. (2002). Deteriorated housing contributes to high cockroach allergen levels in inner-city households. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110, 161–171.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Breysse, P. N., Galke, W., Lanphear, B. P., & Farr, N. (2003). The relationship between housing and health: Children at risk workshop. Columbia: National Center for Healthy Housing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsRobert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.School of Social WorkColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations