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Language policy and planning processes in post-colonial Timor-Leste: struggles and alliances within and across scales

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The aim of this Afterword is to foreground and discuss some of the key themes emerging from the four studies in this special issue. I first consider the critical ethnographic approach to language policy and planning adopted in the studies, and the attention to language policy processes unfolding on different scales of social and institutional life. This is followed by my reading of the ways the authors present the different actors creating, appropriating, reframing or resisting national and language-in-education policies in Timor-Leste. The last part is devoted to the analysis of discourses and practices of particular social actors taken here as ‘language policy arbiters’ (Johnson and Johnson in Lang Policy 14(3):221–243, 2015).

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  1. These are the three terms that occur most in the sociolinguistic literature. Here I will employ the term ‘scale’, following Blommaert (2007).

  2. Frelimo has been the party in power in Mozambique since Independence in 1975.


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Correspondence to Feliciano Chimbutane.

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Chimbutane, F. Afterword. Lang Policy 20, 125–134 (2021).

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