Earlier, I proposed that language policy could usefully be analyzed as consisting of three independent but interconnected components, language practices, language beliefs or ideologies, and language management. It was also argued that failure to recognize that language policy can exist in other domains and at other levels than the nation-state, ranging from the family to international organizations was one of the reasons for the ineffectiveness of state planning efforts. From looking at a number of cases, some modifications are now suggested. First, within management, is to note the distinction between advocates (without power) and managers. Second, is to add the level of the individual, noting the importance of self-management, attempts to expand personal repertoires to enhance communication and employability. Finally, it is pointed out that even when this leads to a workable language policy, it may be blocked or hampered by non-linguistic forces such as genocide, conquest, colonization, introduced diseases, slavery, corruption and natural disasters.
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An earlier version of this paper was read at a symposium on "Interests and Power in Language Management" held at the University of Regensburg in September 2017. I am grateful to audiences at the School of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics at the Victoria University of Wellington, the School of Languages and Linguistics at Melbourne University, and the Language Policy and Practice Research Seminar at Hong Kong University, and to the anonymous reviewers of this paper, for comments and suggestions that helped me rethink it.
Classical language planning saw its task as the solution of language problems. The journal Language Problems and Language Planning, which in 1977 succeeded the Esperanto-language journal La monda lingvo-problemo [The world language problem] founded in 1969 preserves this orientation in its title at least.
In Burundi, Kirindi is official as are English and French. Kenya and Uganda have Kiswahili and English as official languages. Tanzania has no de jure official language, but considers Swahili the national language and uses English for many government activities.
The term comes from Fishman (1991).
It seems there are more speakers of Polish and Mandarin in Dublin than of Irish.
Williams (2017) discusses continuing difficulties in Welsh language policy and implementation.
After over 50 years of marriage, I now have adopted my New York-born wife’s “flapped d” as the central consonant of “butter” rather than the “t” I grew up with.
This is called audience design in studies of radio announcers by Bell (1984).
Totten and Hitchcock (2011) open their collection with the definition of indigenous peoples, aboriginal or “First people”, a category recognized by the United Nations in a covenant, and applying to some 360,000,000 to 600,000,000 people today—the wide range is because few nations recognize or count them.
The term was first used by Lemkin (1944), a Polish Jew who escaped to the US and became a professor of law, to refer to both the Armenian genocide and the Nazi killing of members of his family.
Belich (1986) describes the wars the followed and then provided excuses for seizure of Maori land in nineteenth century New Zealand.
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Klein and Luna (2009) describe slavery in Brazil.
Cook (1998) argues that there were too few invading Spaniards to account for the death of millions, and so suggests introduced diseases like smallpox. There is dispute as to whether the “extinction” of the Arawak people was genocide or an internally generated loss of identity (Grenke 2005; Provost et al. 2010).
About 5,000,000 people are estimated to have died in the wars at the end of the twentieth century in Congo, but by the mid-2000 s, thing had become calmer; however, In February and March of 2018, violence resumed and the UN says 400,000 have been displaced.
Basso (2016) describes the Cherokee, the Herero and the Greek Pontic genocides.
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Similarly, in schools in Wales, children were beaten for using a Welsh word or sentence.
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The Millennium Development Goals aimed to improve nutrition by 2025 and end malnutrition by 2030.
Northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of Algeria, Niger, the extreme north of Nigeria, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South Sudan, Eritrea, Cameroon, Central African Republic and extreme north of Ethiopia.
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Spolsky, B. A modified and enriched theory of language policy (and management). Lang Policy 18, 323–338 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-018-9489-z