Computational Design of Different Epitope-Based Vaccines Against Salmonella typhi

Abstract

Salmonella is a gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. One of the major known serotypes of this bacterium is Salmonella typhi. This pathogen is the main cause of diseases in humans and livestock. It is transmitted from animals to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. At the moment, one way to prevent this illness is using the live attenuated Ty21a vaccine. To eliminate the side effects of the vaccine and improve its safety, it is important to use epitope subunit vaccines. In this study, a wide range of accurate online servers have been used to predict the epitopes of OmpA, OmpC and OmpF antigens of Salmonella typhi. The T-cell (MHCI and MHCII) and B-cell epitopes share a degree of overlap between these tools. The highest scores were chosen for the study. Further analysis of their antigenicity and resistance to digestive compounds was performed by VaxiJen Servers and Protein Digest Servers. Eventually, the resultant epitopes that had desired antigenicity (≥ 1) and showed the highest resistance to digestive compounds were selected. Using these epitopes (MHCI, MHCII and B cell) two different structures (antigenic structure and digestion-resistant structure) were designed by rigid linkers. These structures were based on the highest antigenicity ranking of epitopes and the highest resistance of epitopes to digestive compounds, respectively. Given that this pathogen is primarily transmitted through contaminated foods, oral vaccines are essential in this regard. Therefore, these structures can be considered as suitable candidates for subunit vaccines.

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Data Availability

All materials and methods and obtained data from present work were reported in the manuscript.

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Authors

Contributions

N. Shams introduced concept of this article. N. Nazifi and A.Forouharmehr contributed in preparing data analysis and epitope prediction. A.Forouharmehr Z.Shakarami included in development of the Epitope-based constructions, A. Jaydari and E. Rashidian interpreted the data. All team members contributed to the preparation of the manuscript. Authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Nemat Shams.

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The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.

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The authors state that in this manuscript, all data were prepared in silico, and no data was collected from human or animal laboratory.

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Shams, N., Shakarami Gandabeh, Z., Nazifi, N. et al. Computational Design of Different Epitope-Based Vaccines Against Salmonella typhi. Int J Pept Res Ther 26, 1527–1539 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10989-019-09959-4

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Keywords

  • Salmonella typhi
  • OmpA
  • OmpC
  • OmpF
  • Epitope prediction
  • Antigenicity
  • Subunit vaccine