Contemporary Updates on the Physiology of Glucagon like Peptide-1 and Its Agonist to Treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract

Pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus involves scores of different factors, out of which Glucagon like factor-1 (GLP-1) plays a foremost role. GLP-1 is a peptide-hormone of the incretin system. It exhibits glucagonostatic as well as glucose dependent insulinotropic action. GLP-1 augments regeneration of β-cell, boost secretion of insulin and trim down weight gain in type-2 diabetes. GLP-1 discharge from the L cells of intestine is mediated by neural and hormonal factors which are stimulated by the occurrence of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Conversely, GLP-1 is instantaneously shattered by enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV. GLP-1 is also cleared by renal clearance. Diminished GLP-1 leads to attenuated insulin release leading to type-2 diabetes. Substitution of GLP-1 regularizes the insulin release and prevents type-2 diabetes. However, GLP-1 holding infinitesimal plasma half life limits its therapeutic effects. To surmount the limitations of indigenous GLP-1, several GLP-1 receptor agonist like Exenatide are been developed. Modifications in pharmaceutical formulation are also been made to meet the patients adherence to the medication of GLP-1 agonist.

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Acknowledgements

Authors like to acknowledge the dean and the management of College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dayananda Sagar University, Bangalore for their constant support to fulfil this work.

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Das, A., Geetha, K.M. & Hazarika, I. Contemporary Updates on the Physiology of Glucagon like Peptide-1 and Its Agonist to Treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Pept Res Ther 26, 1211–1221 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10989-019-09927-y

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Keywords

  • Incretin
  • GLP-1
  • GLP-1 agonist
  • Incretin mimetics
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Insulin
  • Hypoglycaemia